The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States in 2011 and 2012 was estimated at 4.4–4.8%. As of 2015, 12.4 million people still possessed LTBI. Isoniazid, or isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH), is the most commonly used medication among varying regimens that exist in the treatment of tuberculosis and LTBI. INH-related hepatotoxicity is a well-known adverse effect of its use, often causing asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels. These elevations are typically transient and reversible, but can cause acute, clinically-significant liver injury in rare cases. We report a case of a 67-year old male who developed subacute hepatic injury secondary to INH treatment for LTBI, and ultimately underwent liver transplantation due to the progression to hepatic decompensation, despite withdrawal of the medication. Because symptoms of INH hepatotoxicity are nonspecific and prognosis can be variable, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for this adverse effect. As exemplified by this case, early recognition may be life-saving.
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