Next Article in Journal
Update Treatment for HBV Infection and Persistent Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Prospect for an HBV Cure
Next Article in Special Issue
Innovative Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Analysis for Quantifying Pulse Amplitude and Timing Variability Characteristics in Peripheral Arterial Disease
Previous Article in Journal
ERBB1- and ERBB2-Positive Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toward Generating More Diagnostic Features from Photoplethysmogram Waveforms
Open AccessArticle

The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of British Columbia and BC Children’s & Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Department of Pediatrics, Stollery Children’s Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
Division of Cardiology at Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, AB T3B 6A8, Canada
Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V2, Canada
Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E8, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diseases 2018, 6(2), 26;
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-invasive Diagnostics for Cardiovascular Diseases)
Increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery is referred to as pulmonary hypertension and often is linked to loud pulmonic valve closures. For the purpose of this paper, it was hypothesized that pulmonary circulation vibrations will create sounds similar to sounds created by vocal cords during speech and that subjects with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) could have unique sound signatures across four auscultatory sites. Using a digital stethoscope, heart sounds were recorded at the cardiac apex, 2nd left intercostal space (2LICS), 2nd right intercostal space (2RICS), and 4th left intercostal space (4LICS) undergoing simultaneous cardiac catheterization. From the collected heart sounds, relative power of the frequency band, energy of the sinusoid formants, and entropy were extracted. PAH subjects were differentiated by applying the linear discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation. The entropy of the first sinusoid formant decreased significantly in subjects with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAp) ≥ 25 mmHg versus subjects with a mPAp < 25 mmHg with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 88.57%, within a 10-s optimized window length for heart sounds recorded at the 2LICS. First sinusoid formant entropy reduction of heart sounds in PAH subjects suggests the existence of a vowel-like pattern. Pattern analysis revealed a unique sound signature, which could be used in non-invasive screening tools. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital heart disease; hypertension; pulmonary; heart sounds; auscultation; machine learning; language recognition congenital heart disease; hypertension; pulmonary; heart sounds; auscultation; machine learning; language recognition
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Elgendi, M.; Bobhate, P.; Jain, S.; Guo, L.; Rutledge, J.; Coe, Y.; Zemp, R.; Schuurmans, D.; Adatia, I. The Voice of the Heart: Vowel-Like Sound in Pulmonary Artery Hypertension. Diseases 2018, 6, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop