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Diseases 2018, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases6020024

Genomic Influence in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases with a Sterol-Based Treatment

1
Research Centers in Nutrition and Health, Paseo de la Habana, 28036 Madrid, Spain
2
Hospital El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 28200 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract

Raised serum cholesterol concentration is a well-established risk factor in cardiovascular disease. In addition, genetic load may have an indirect influence on cardiovascular risk. Plant-based sterol-supplemented foods are recommended to help reduce the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The objective was to analyse the influence of different polymorphisms in hypercholesterolemia patients following a dietary treatment with plant sterols. A randomised double-blind cross-over controlled clinical trial was carried out in 45 people (25 women). Commercial milk, containing 2.24 g of sterols, was ingested daily during a 3-week period, and then the same amount of skim milk, without sterols, was consumed daily during the 3-week placebo phase. Both phases were separated by a washout period of 2 weeks. At the beginning and end of each phase, blood draws were performed. Genes LIPC C-514T and APOA5 C56G are Ser19Trp carriers and greatly benefit from sterol intake in the diet. LIPC C-514T TT homozygous carriers had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels than CC homozygote and CT heterozygote carriers after the ingestion of plant sterols (p = 0.001). These two genes also showed statistically significant changes in total cholesterol levels (p = 0.025; p = 0.005), and no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (p = 0.032; p = 0.003), respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed for other genes. Further studies are needed to establish which genotype combinations would be the most protective against hypercholesterolemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic; nutrigenetics; sterol; cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; cardiovascular disease genetic; nutrigenetics; sterol; cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; cardiovascular disease
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San Mauro Martín, I.; Blumenfeld Olivares, J.A.; Pérez Arruche, E.; Arce Delgado, E.; Ciudad Cabañas, M.J.; Garicano Vilar, E.; Collado Yurrita, L. Genomic Influence in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases with a Sterol-Based Treatment. Diseases 2018, 6, 24.

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