Recently, deep-learning-based indoor localisation systems have attracted attention owing to their higher performance compared with traditional indoor localization systems. However, to achieve satisfactory performance, the former systems require large amounts of data to train deep learning models. Since obtaining the data is usually a tedious task, this requirement deters the use of deep learning approaches. To address this problem, we propose an improved data augmentation technique based on received signal strength indication (RSSI) values for fingerprint indoor positioning systems. The technique is implemented using available RSSI values at one reference point, and unlike existing techniques, it mimics the constantly varying RSSI signals. With this technique, the proposed method achieves a test accuracy of 95.26% in the laboratory simulation and 94.59% in a real-time environment, and the average location error is as low as 1.45 and 1.60 m, respectively. The method exhibits higher performance compared with an existing augmentation method. In particular, the data augmentation technique can be applied irrespective of the positioning algorithm used.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited