In this work, we present a novel method, namely dynamic basic activity sequence matching (DAS), a combination of machine learning methods and flexible threshold based methods for distinguishing normal and abnormal driving patterns. Indeed, DAS relies on the activity detection module (ADM) presented in our previous work to analyze each driving pattern as a sequence of basic activities—stopping (S), going straight (G), turning left (L), and turning right (R). In fact, the threshold value and other parameters like the duration of long and short activities are iteratively induced from the collected dataset. Hence, DAS is flexible and independent of driving contexts such as vehicle modes and road conditions. Experimental results, on the dataset collected from numerous motorcyclists, show the outperformance of our proposed method against dynamic time warping and the two popular machine learning methods—random forest and neural network—in distinguishing the normal and abnormal driving patterns. Moreover, we propose an efficient framework composing of two phases: in the first phase, the normal and abnormal driving patterns are distinguished by relying on DAS. In the second phase, the detected abnormal patterns are further classified into various specific abnormal driving patterns—weaving, sudden braking, etc. This fusion framework again achieves the highest overall accuracy of 97.94%.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited