# A Comprehensive Review of DC–DC Converter Topologies and Modulation Strategies with Recent Advances in Solar Photovoltaic Systems

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Global PV Market

## 3. Classification of the DC–DC Converters

#### 3.1. Buck Converter

#### 3.2. Boost Converter

#### 3.3. Buck–Boost Converter

#### 3.4. Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC)

#### 3.5. Cuk Converter

**Figure 8.**Cuk converter for PV application [72].

#### 3.6. Positive-Output Super-Lift Luo Converter

#### 3.7. Ultra-Lift Luo Converter

#### 3.8. Zeta Converter

## 4. Isolated DC–DC Converter Topologies

#### 4.1. Flyback Converter

#### 4.2. Bridge Converter

#### 4.2.1. Half-Bridge Converter

#### 4.2.2. Full-Bridge Converter

#### 4.2.3. Dual Active Bridge Converter

#### 4.2.4. Multi-Element Resonant Converter

- (a)
- Three elements LLC resonant converter Figure 16b: The resonant tank was formed using three LLC element and it is considered to be a bandpass filter in a circuit which comprises parallel resonant frequency (PRF) and series resonant frequency (SRF) [130,131]. The series resonant frequency is created by the capacitor and inductor of the resonant tank. The fundamental component of input energy can be distributed form source to load very efficiently at this topology. Therefore, high power conversion efficiency can be achieved very easily using this topology. However, to achieve the proper damping effect, the frequency must be increased largely as it has poor frequency selectivity and very wide bandwidth. An additional resonant element must be added for improving the characteristics of this topology.
- (b)
- Four-element resonant converter, as shown in Figure 16c: The LCLC four-element converter is 3-element LLC-based resonant topology [132,133]. The magnetic construction and resonant parameter design method for four-element topologies are simple in logic and accurate. It achieves high voltage gain and high conversion efficiency. This topology is particularly suitable for wide input voltage applications such as standalone energy system. It experiences optimum weighted efficiency over the extensive input voltage range.
- (c)
- Five-element resonant converter, as shown in Figure 16d: The five-element LLC-LC resonant converter is implemented by adding two LC elements into the secondary side of the traditional conventional LLC converter [134]. The additional two LC elements called notch filter which increases the voltage gain of the traditional converter through reducing the conduction losses. Furthermore, the five-element resonant converter provides high voltage gain at the resonance frequency and can minimize the circulating energy of the resonant tank. In other case, the five-element LCLCL resonant tank is adopted with half the bride at the primary side. These topologies ease to combine with other output structures such as voltage doubler, full-bridge, and current-doubler structures. The circulating energy of the resonant tank can be reduced largely that lower than the conventional resonant converter [135].
- (d)
- Three port bidirectional multi-element resonant converter, as shown in Figure 16e: This converter transmits more active power to load due to the employment of third order harmonic components and fundamental components. Besides, a non-ideal isolated transformer is considered to be the parasitic leakage inductor is often ignored for the multi-element resonant converter. In this topology, zero voltage switching characteristics for all the three-port power switches can be achieved easily and around 96% power conversion efficiency is achieved. This achieves a more flexible and elegant design compared to the complex decoupling matrices. It is also simple to make digital control implementation for this topology [136].

#### 4.2.5. Push-Pull Converter Model

## 5. MPPT Techniques

## 6. Modulation Strategies

## 7. Comparative Performance Assessment

## 8. Advances in DC–DC Converters for PV Systems

**C**of the isolation transformer and the rectifying diodes. Here the carefully employed resonant tank leads to greater efficiencies operated over a wide range of the input voltage.

_{p}## 9. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**Buck converter for the PV application [34].

**Figure 5.**Boost Converter for PV Application [42].

**Figure 6.**Buck–Boost converter for PV application [48].

**Figure 7.**SEPIC converter for the PV application [56].

**Figure 9.**Positive output super-lift Luo converter for PV application [87].

**Figure 10.**Ultra-lift Luo converter [93].

**Figure 11.**Zeta converter for PV application [97].

**Figure 12.**Flyback converter for PV application [105].

**Figure 13.**Three port half-bridge converter for PV application [108].

**Figure 14.**Full-bridge converter for PV application [113].

**Figure 15.**DAB converter for PV application [117].

**Figure 17.**Push-pull converter for PV application [137].

**Figure 18.**Asynchronous boost and a series -resonant converter exhibiting the two-stage topology [263].

**Figure 19.**Quazi-Z source resonant converter [264].

**Figure 20.**LLCC series-parallel resonant converter [265].

**Figure 21.**Dual-mode resonant converter [266].

**Figure 22.**Series resonant converter with the bidirectional AC loads [267].

**Figure 23.**Half-bridge LLC resonant converter [268].

**Figure 24.**Parallel resonant current-fed push-pull converter [269].

**Figure 25.**Multi resonant two inductor boost converter with non-dissipative regenerative snubber [270].

References | GPV | CT | MS | MPPTT | CA | RA | M | DM | EA | Focused Area |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

[18] | x | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | Solar PV systems |

[19] | x | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | ✓ | x | Renewable Energies |

[20] | x | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | x | x | x | x | Renewable Energies |

[21] | x | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | x | x | x | ✓ | Distributed generation units |

[22] | x | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | Renewable energy and energy storage systems |

[23] | x | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | PV applications |

[24] | x | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | DC Microgrids |

[25] | x | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | Solar PV systems |

[26] | x | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | x | Solar PV systems |

[27] | x | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | x | x | x | PV, wind, HVDC Applications |

[28] | x | ✓ | x | x | ✓ | x | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | Solar PV systems |

This work | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | ✓ | Solar PV systems |

**Note:**GPV-Global PV Status; CT-Converter Topologies; MS-Modulation strategies; MPPTT-Maximum PowerPoint Tracking Techniques; CA-Comparative Assessments; RA-Recent Advances; M-Merits; DM-Demerits; EA-Elemental Analysis.

Converters | Authors | Control Variable | MPPT Type | Remarks |
---|---|---|---|---|

Buck | Bendib et al. [183] | Duty Cycle | FLC | The author designed a MPPT based on the FLC controller for a buck converter that can control the PV array to employ at the voltage of operation. |

Alabedin et al. [184] | Duty Cycle | ANN | Enhanced performance in the array power after dealing with fluctuations. | |

Radhakrishnan et al. [185] | Voltage and current | P&O | The author implemented under low irradiation conditions. Linear current booster (LCB) for a DC motor that can be employed for pumping applications. | |

Zhang et al. [186] | Current | Variable inductance | Prior to solar irradiance, the light enhances and inductance decreases. This variable inductance enables to get the continuous current in partial shading and the fewer irradiation conditions. | |

Veerachary et al. [187] | Voltage and current | P&O | Designed the coupled inductor scheme to diminish the distortions in the source current. Furthermore, with this design, the core size can be diminished. | |

Boost | Kwon et al. [188] | Voltage | Hysteresis Loop | Designed a three-level boost converter along with a hysteresis power loop-based MPPT technique. The designed scheme also diminishes the ripples in the source current, the losses in the diodes and the stress on switches. |

Choi et al. [189] | Voltage and Current | P&O | Designed a high gain boost converter equipped with the floating output that decreases the stress on the switches and lowers the ripples in the currents both in the input and the output currents and decreases the voltage and current ratings of the various components. | |

Elshaer et al. [190] | Voltage and Current | FLC-GA | Here, the PID controller under various load conditions is accordingly tuned with the GA and the FLC-based controller to automate the tuning process. | |

Veerachary et al. [178] | Voltage | FLC with ANN | The designed feedforward FLC MPPT technique uses an ANN that supports it as an optimizer. To define the reference voltage on-line, the BP algorithm is trained by the ANN enhancing the tracking performance. | |

Agorreta et al. [191] | Voltage and current | FLC | The designed outer loop controls the input voltage. Pertaining to the fuzzy switching technique, the inner loop topology controls the inductor current that can be enabled to operate in mixed conduction mode. | |

Buck-boost | Ishaque et al. [192] | Duty Cycle | PSO | Under partial shading conditions, the designed PSO algorithm is applied for the MPPT that showed the tracking efficiency of 99.5%. |

Wu et al. [193] | Voltage and Current | P&O | FLC-based single-stage converter is designed for Solar PV powered applications such as Solar PV powered lighting. The integrated SSC is operated with the bidirectional buck–boost charger/ discharger along with the class D series resonant parallel loaded inverter. | |

Veerachary et al. [194] | Voltage | ANN | Here the gradient descent algorithm is employed for training. Furthermore, the usage is applicable to the permanent magnet series motor. | |

Syafaruddin et al. [195] | Irradiance and Temperature | ANN-FLC | Using the high quantity of PSC (passive solar component) data, the three-layered ANN is trained for tracking the GMPP. The GMPP voltage is derived from the ANN. Further the ANN along with integrated FLC along with the polar controller to supply regulate pulses for the buck–boost converter. | |

Kuo et al. [196] | Voltage and current | P&O | The designed MPPT carries a voltage ranges from the 12 V DC obtained from the PV panel to 230 V AC from the grid lines. Similar to the conventional voltage the designed converter also possesses one switch and operated with two modes. | |

Cuk | Lin et al. [197] | Voltage and current | P&O | The cuk converter used to charge the battery in the daytime and the forward converter drives the LED. During the discharging time, the forward converter operated the LED. |

Chung et al. [198] | Duty cycle | Injecting sinusoidal pulse | The designed converter works in the discontinuous capacitor voltage mode along with the continuous input current. MPP performs its operation by giving the sinusoidal pulses into the duty cycle and in comparison, with the switching stress and the input voltage variations. | |

Mahmoud et al. [199] | Voltage | FLC | Without any modifications in the membership functions, the designed MPP works with the desired efficiency and enhanced robustness when applied for the resistive loads. | |

Safari and Mekhilef et al. [200] | Voltage and current | INC | The designed model is simple without any proportional-integral (PI) control loop that can be used to track the peak power. | |

SEPIC | Duran et al. [201] | Voltage and current | P&O | The SEPIC converter operating in the interleaved mode connected in parallel used for measuring the I-V and P-V properties of a PV panel/module. |

Tse et al. [202] | Voltage | RCC | A minimum sinusoidal perturbation is supplied into the switching pulses to compare the average value of the panel voltage with the ac component. | |

Hyun-Lo et al. [203] | Voltage | FLC | When the optimum solar irradiance is not obtained, the FLC controller is used to maintain the charging current to operate the battery at the desired value. | |

Rathge et al. [204] | Voltage and current | Pulse-current charging | The designed converter operates with high accuracy and the high efficiency MPP technique to track the maximum power and store energy in the battery. Further the overcharging of the battery is avoided using the pulse charging scheme in the rest of the periods. | |

Zeta | Salenga et al. [205] | Voltage and current | P&O | The designed topology is based on the transfer functions obtained from the dynamic analysis experimented with the Zeta converter for hybrid solar and wind power systems. |

Priya et al. [206] | Voltage and current | P&O | The adaptive perturbation step is implemented with the necessary step size. The perturbation step size is dominantly low at the initial stage of the tracking and at the operating point, MPP step size decreases. | |

Antonio et al. [207] | Voltage and current | P&O | The designed algorithm is used to track the maximum power and the constant voltage /constant current method to monitor the charging and the discharging cycles of the battery. | |

Zanotti et al. [208] | Voltage | Input impedance | The implemented technique does not require the storage as the previous value of the resistance is not required. | |

Flyback | Unal YILMAZ et al. [209] | Voltage | Incremental Conductance (IC) | The flyback converter operates with the incremental conductance method under variable irradiance and temperatures. |

Shanmugave et al. [210] | Voltage and current | P&O | The designed MPPT strategy used a settled step prescient control along with the Model Predictive Control under a measured quick irradiance. | |

Dong-Kyun Ryu ey al. [211] | Voltage and current | Current Sensor | The author used a current sensor to track the MPPT point and the designed system found to be simple and cost-effective. | |

Mohammed et al. [212] | Voltage and current | Model Predictive Control (MPC) | The major contribution of this paper is the advancement of the P&O through a fixed step predictive control at the faster variations of the solar radiation. | |

Forward | Carlos et al. [213] | Voltage | SMC | The author proposed a sliding mode controller (SMC) operating on each converter to regulate the voltage at the input and outputs to avoid the overvoltage criterion at the partial shading conditions. |

Mustafa Engin Basoglu et al. [214] | Voltage | P&O | The author studied the performance of the forward converter that is evaluated by the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm for modular level and the submodular level MPPT systems designed in the MATLAB/ Simulink. | |

Abdelhamid et al. [215] | Duty cycle | P&O | The author proposed a modified variable step size P&O strategy that can be used to overcome several demerits such as accuracy and the convergence speed at the swiftly changing atmospheric conditions. | |

Resonant | Akif et al. [216] | Voltage | SMC | The converter operates with the 32-pulse density modulation to attain the desired efficiency of the PV panels and the MPPT by removing some of the control signals. |

Meghana et al. [217] | Voltage | Conventional MPPT | Here the DC voltage is used as the perturbation variable for the LLC resonant converter. | |

Andrian et al. [218] | Voltage | Incremental conductance | The implemented conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) systems use the pulse width modulation (PWM) for DC–DC converters. Furthermore, the author proposed an incremental conductance method used for the LLC resonant converter. | |

Qian et al. [219] | Duty cycle | Conventional MPPT | The proposed algorithm used the boundary frequency ranges to determine the switching frequencies of the resonant power converter. | |

Push-pull | Luigi et al. [220] | Voltage | P&O | The author proposed the adaptive step P&O algorithm to achieve an excellent dynamic response of the PV array. This is achieved by adapting the perturbation step to the actual conditions of the PV array. This type of converter topology is found to be an efficient interface to enhance the low voltage of the PV arrays and also effectively regulates the flow of power when there are variations in the input and output voltage levels. |

Gaikwad et al. [221] | Duty cycle | Conventional MPPT | The author proposed a hardware implementation of a DC–DC push-pull converter based on the TL598 control to track the maximum power point.TL598 operates with the fixed frequency and variable duty cycle controlled IC that can be employed for the charge controller purposes. This can be achieved from the MPPT algorithm by the variation of external voltage at Pin 4 of Dead Time Control (DTCON) in the TL598 IC. This further enhances the tracking speed and also output power stability. | |

L.Piegeri et al. [222] | Voltage | P&O | The author proposed an adaptive P&O method to have faster dynamics and improved stability when compared to the traditional P&O algorithm. This is because when the atmospheric conditions, either constant or slowly varies, the P&O method oscillates nearer to the MPP. Hence this adaptive P&O method was employed in this study. | |

H-Bridge | Mahraz Amini et al. [223] | Voltage | Model Predictive Control (MPC) | The author proposed a technique for the grid-connected Cascaded H- Bridge (CHB) inverters where the DC-link voltage is independently controlled at different insolation conditions. |

Bailu et al. [224] | Voltage | Conventional MPPT | Independent control of the DC-link voltage is encouraged in this work. Furthermore, the generalized nonactive power theory is implemented to generate the nonactive current reference. | |

Nawrin et al. [225] | Duty cycle | Incremental Conductance | The author illustrated a control strategy to design and operate the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV system using the incremental conductance algorithm. | |

Mingxuan et al. [226] | Voltage | PSO | The author proposed the grouping method of the shuffles frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) is equipped with the basic PSO algorithm to indicate the swift and precise search of the global extremum. Here, an adaptive speed factor is studied to improve the convergence speed. Furthermore, the PWM algorithm enabled the permuted switching of the available PV sources is implemented. |

Converter | Author | Modulation Technique | Remarks |
---|---|---|---|

Buck | Chen et al. [228] | Improved Delta Modulation Technique | The proposed technique for the buck converter, possess various slopes of the carrier signal obtained by the feedforward and from where the control signal is sent to the input control unit to the integrator of the delta modulator. |

Buck and Boost | Mandi et al. [229] | Unified Digital Modulation | The author proposed a novel integrated technique i.e., unified digital PWM/PFM scheme to achieve efficiency over a wide operating range and to obtain the controlled transitions. Buck and Boost converters were tested with this technique. |

Buck | Boudoudas et al. [230] | Dual Randomized Pulse Width Modulation | This technique aims to reduce the potential harmonics, the effect of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the uniform distribution of the power spectrum. The DRPWM scheme integrated by the photovoltaic source and its operation in the discontinuous conduction mode is studied. From this technique, the steady-state characteristics were obtained for the buck converter. |

Buck | Nguyen et al. [231] | Chaotic Pulse Width Modulation | The author proposed a voltage controlled buck converter to diminish the electromagnetic interference (EMI) using the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique that relies on the chaotic triangular ramp generator. Without the implementation of the EMI filters, the proposed converter reduces the effect of the EMI when operated in the chaotic mode. |

Boost | Diab et al. [232] | Modified modulation scheme | In this paper, the author discussed a modified modulation scheme employed for the three-phase boost converter that is used for the controlling of both active and reactive powers that are injected into the grid. Furthermore, it is used to reduce the voltage stress on the capacitors and the switching devices. |

Boost | Parveen et al. [233] | Sinusoidal pulse width modulation | Here the author proposed the system for the interleaved boost converter, characteristics that can be controlled by using the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and further the voltage control of the inverter can be modulated using the sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique. The proposed system removes power losses. |

Buck-boost | Marrison et al. [234] | Novel modulation technique | The author discussed the novel modulation technique used for a power factor correction (PFC) used for an isolated AC/DC converter that is obtained by the integration of the non-isolated converter such as two switch buck–boost AC/DC converter with the implementation of the dual active bridge DC/DC converter (2SBBDAB). |

Cascaded, bidirectional, buck–boost converters | Stefan et al. [235] | Zero voltage switching (ZVS) modulation technique | Here the author, mentioned a novel reduced loss, with constant frequency, zero voltage switching (ZVS) modulation technique for the cascaded, bidirectional, buck–boost converters that are employed in the hybrid electric vehicles and in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). |

SEPIC | Nan li et al. [236] | PWM-Based Sliding Mode Controller | The author used the principle of the PWM-Based Sliding Mode Controller that can be used for a SEPIC converter and for the effectiveness of the control algorithm developed for embedded applications such as FPGA, ASIC, etc. Here various constraints such as the Silicon surface and the reduction factor are the key factors. |

SEPIC | Mohanraj et al. [237] | Sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique | Here, the author designed a SEPIC converter with the PV panel that is controlled by the sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique along with the PI controller for the control of the duty cycle ratio of the converter. |

SEPIC | Emre et al. [238] | -- | Here the author, represented the control technique for the modified SEPIC converter to achieve the high voltage ratio by the passive components. |

Zeta and the SEPIC | Adriano et al. [239] | Pulse width modulation | The PWM is used for the isolated bidirectional DC–DC converter, depending on the dual properties in between the Zeta and the SEPIC converters. |

SEPIC | Bawane et al. [240] | Pulse width modulation | Here the author discussed the topology of the power conversion circuit of a DC–DC SEPIC converter implemented by the pulse width modulation strategies. |

SEPIC | Hu et al. [241] | Hysteretic override technique | The author used a hysteretic override technique that enabled the converter to deny the load distortions along with the bandwidth that is much greater than the modulation frequency in order to limit the output voltage disturbances to a fixed value. |

Buck-boost | Feng et al. [242] | Phase opposing and disposition type of modulation | The author developed a front end circuitry of Cuk derived from the buck–boost two-level inverter, using the alternative phase opposing and disposition type of modulation scheme. Moreover, the buck–boost three-level inverters can also work to switch as five-level line voltage and three-level phase voltage employing the switches that are active destinated circuits of voltage boost section. |

Cuk | Raghavendra et al. [243] | Pulse area modulation strategy | The author employed the variable pulse area modulation strategy to control the voltage at the end of the Cuk converter. |

Cuk | Krishnakumar et al. [244] | Randomized pulse width modulation | The author used the randomized pulse width modulation (RPWM) strategy as an efficient technique to diminish the electromagnetic interference on the Cuk converter. |

Cuk | Fuad et al. [245] | Pulse width modulation | In this paper, the author developed a stabilizing controller with the state space average model of a DC–DC converter that was pulse width modulated does not resemble a stabilizing controller for the DC–DC converter itself, particularly in the Cuk converter case. |

Cuk | Mehrnami et al. [246] | Discontinuous modulation scheme | Here the author discussed the discontinuous modulation scheme (DMS) for the usage of DTCI in which deactivates the one module at the resulting time in the inverter’s modules discontinuous operation. |

Flyback | Marlon et al. [247] | Alternative modulation strategy | The author employed the alternative modulation strategy for the usage of the flyback converter along with the differential output connection. |

Flyback | Dan et al. [248] | Leading-edge modulation | The author implemented a leading-edge modulation, i.e., at the clock signal pulse width modulation (PWM) signal turns off and it is turned on when the error signal crosses the ramp waveform. It is also shown that the positive zero during the power stage of the transfer function of both the boost and the flyback regulators can be moved under suitable conditions to the left side of the plane. |

Flyback | Yang et al. [249] | Pulse width modulation | The author implemented a novel dual-type DC–DC fly back converter operated with leakage energy recycling. In this type of converter, the only active switch is used and the PWM technique is used to control this switch along with the two transformers. |

Dual active bridge (DAB) converter | Byeng et al. [250] | Pulse width modulation | Here the author discussed the single pulse-width modulation topology using a soft-switching technique operated for a broad range of the output voltages obtained from the bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) converter. |

Dual active bridge (DAB) converter | Muhammed et al. [251] | Combined pulse-width modulation (CPWM) | The author proposed two important modulation techniques such as the single pulse width modulation and the dual pulse width modulation that were combined into the one modulation strategy usually referred to as the combined pulse-width modulation (CPWM). |

Cascaded H-bridge converter | Xiao et al. [252] | Pulse width modulation | The author analyzed the relationship between the PS-PWM and PDPWM for the cascaded H bridge converter along with the enhanced hybrid modulation topology. |

-- | Sudha et al. [253] | Carrier-based pulse width modulation technique | Here the author discussed a method using the fundamental switching and the carrier based on pulse width modulation techniques. The main feature of this method is to reduce the total harmonic distortions (THD), certain switching and the heat losses. The developed technique is formulated in order to enable the fundamental switching along with the carrier-based pulse width modulation technique. |

H-bridge | Lewicki et al. [254] | Space vector modulation | The author selected an appropriate H-bridges and the control of these bridge duty cycles using the space vector modulation (SVM) algorithms for balancing the voltages of the DC-link. This technique enabled to maintain the constant voltage in all the capacitors in the inverter. To the balancing function, even though the DC-link voltages are not properly balanced, the output voltage vector is normally generated from the SVM strategy. |

LLC type Resonant | Deck et al. [255] | Hybrid modulation strategy | Here the author proposed a new type of modulation strategy for the LLC type Resonant converters that were implemented in the solar applications. The technique depends upon the zero current crossings in the resonant tank. By controlling a single parameter, the input to the output voltage ratio can be controlled by not losing the property of soft switching. |

LLC type Resonant | Dick et al. [256] | Optimized buck mode modulation strategy | In this paper, the author presented an improved modulation strategy. This technique depends upon the resonant current zero-crossing. This model depends upon the simulation of the converter that automatically varies with the parameters of the converter. |

Push-pull converter | Soubache et al. [257] | Pulse width modulation | The voltage regulation in this paper is achieved by the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique by adding a secondary side bidirectional AC switch to the resonant converter for the wide range of the input voltage that is more beneficial for the photovoltaic applications. |

Forward flyback | Yu et al. [258] | Dual constant on-time modulation | This modulation technique is used in order to obtain high efficiency across the wide load and the input range. Zero current switching is obtained when the main switch is in ON state for half a period of the constant resonance for the forward diode. Furthermore, to reduce the dead time among the output diodes. Moreover, zero voltage switching can be obtained when the auxiliary switch is turned ON for very little interval of time. The proposed design is more applicable for the PV systems of tree type. |

**Table 4.**Comparative performance of the isolated DC–DC converters employed in solar PV applications.

Author | Converter | Frequency | Power | Efficiency | Remarks |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Lessing et al. [247] | Bidirectional flyback converter with Differential output | 20 kHz | 500 W | 86.4% (Alternative Switching) 83.4% (Complementary Switching) | As might be expected, the proposed alternative switching method has higher efficiency gain than the complementary switching method applied to the same prototype. The results of the open-loop show that this converter, which operates on both techniques, presents a solution for a simple application that does not require a closed-loop control in the case of an off connection. |

Sable et al. [248] | Flyback converter with leakage energy recycling | 75 kHz | 250 W | 94.8% | This converter is a simple structure and low cost. the converter uses two transformers with the equal inductance. During the switch-off, the magnetized inductance of the transformer is released to the output. At the same time, the energy dispersion of the transformers can be recycled. |

Yang et al. [249] | Bidirectional Dual Active Bridge Converter | 10 kHz | 50 kW | 85.6% ~ 97.5% | It represents integrated algorithm techniques for controlling the PWM signal. The purpose of this method was to provide soft switching in the whole operating range by PWM patterns. |

Byen et al. [250] | Dual Active Bridge Converter | 40 kHz | 100 W | 82% ~ 92% | The modified a DPWM to overcome hard switching operations with the previously proposed (CPWM) modulation approach. the DPWM is evaluated to operate throughout the ZVS including the current leakage inductance. The DPWM modification includes the consideration of adding parameters to satisfy current leakage inductance conditions. |

Malek et al. [251] | Cascaded H-Bridge Inverters | 610 Hz | -- | Slightly reduce in the efficiency | A modulation strategy was proposed combining PS-PWM and PD-PWM to improve the output quality of the output line voltage for CHB inverters. An uncontrolled modulation approach that can reduce frequency transfer to theoretical value is offered for multilevel inverters. |

Xiao et al. [252] | Seven levels Cascaded H-Bridge Inverters | 7 KHz | 570 KW | Maximum efficiency is produced | The proposed SVM method allows maintaining the same voltage level across all inverter capacitors. Regardless of the balancing function, the SVM strategy allows the output voltage vector to form correctly even if the intermediate circuit voltage is not balanced. |

Deck et al. [255] | LLC type resonant converter | Variable frequency | -- | -- | This paper focused on the control system of the converter by varying and comparing the frequency and phase-shift modulation |

Yu et al. [258] | Inductor less forward flyback converter | 1 MHz | 250 W | 97% | The PWM flyback converter and a hybrid resonant inductor less with forward and double-time constant modulation, in which the inductor less forward converter works at full resonance with minimum idle time, while the flyback converter works in a piecewise linear. |

Figure | Maximum Power (W) | PV Panel Voltage (V) | DC Bus Voltage (V) | Voltage Gain Range (Input) (V) | Switching Frequency (kHz) | Efficiency (%) | Number of Switches | Number of Diodes | Resonance Type |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

18 | 275 | 15–45 | 400 | 8.9–26.7 | 210 (boost) 350 (SRC) | 97 | 6 | 2 | Series |

19 | 500 | 50–150 | 100 | 0.7–2 | 49.3 | 96 | 4 | 3 | Series |

20 | 244 | 20–35 | 700 | 20–35 | 215–268.5 | 96 | 4 | 2 | LLCC |

21 | 300 | 15–35 | 320 | 5.6–21.3 | 130 | 97.4 | 6 | 2 | Series |

22 | 240 | 22–40 | 400 | 10–18.2 | 76–185 | 96.5 | 3 | 4 | LLC |

23 | 200 | 24–48 | 380 | 7.9–15.8 | 100 | 95.4 | 2 | 2 | LLC |

24 | 250 | 20–40 | 400 | 10–20 | 50–100 | 96.6 | 2 | 2 | Parallel |

25 | 210 | 26.6 | 350 | 13.2 | 100 | 93.6 | 2 | 4 | LLC |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Raghavendra, K.V.G.; Zeb, K.; Muthusamy, A.; Krishna, T.N.V.; Kumar, S.V.S.V.P.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, M.-S.; Cho, H.-G.; Kim, H.-J. A Comprehensive Review of DC–DC Converter Topologies and Modulation Strategies with Recent Advances in Solar Photovoltaic Systems. *Electronics* **2020**, *9*, 31.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010031

**AMA Style**

Raghavendra KVG, Zeb K, Muthusamy A, Krishna TNV, Kumar SVSVP, Kim D-H, Kim M-S, Cho H-G, Kim H-J. A Comprehensive Review of DC–DC Converter Topologies and Modulation Strategies with Recent Advances in Solar Photovoltaic Systems. *Electronics*. 2020; 9(1):31.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010031

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Raghavendra, Kummara Venkat Guru, Kamran Zeb, Anand Muthusamy, T. N. V. Krishna, S. V. S. V Prabhudeva Kumar, Do-Hyun Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Hwan-Gyu Cho, and Hee-Je Kim. 2020. "A Comprehensive Review of DC–DC Converter Topologies and Modulation Strategies with Recent Advances in Solar Photovoltaic Systems" *Electronics* 9, no. 1: 31.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010031