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Optimized Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot

Universiti Kuala Lumpur, British Malaysian Institute, Selangor 53100, Malaysia
College of Engineering, American University of Kurdistan, Kurdistan, Iraq
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, 38122 Trento, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(8), 826;
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Robotics & Control)
PDF [7559 KB, uploaded 25 July 2019]


This paper proposes a nature inspired, meta-heuristic optimization technique to tune a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for a robotic arm exoskeleton RAX-1. The RAX-1 is a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs) upper limb rehabilitation robotic system comprising two joints to facilitate shoulder joint movements. The conventional tuning of PID controllers using Ziegler-Nichols produces large overshoots which is not desirable for rehabilitation applications. To address this issue, nature inspired algorithms have recently been proposed to improve the performance of PID controllers. In this study, a 2-DOF PID control system is optimized offline using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC). To validate the effectiveness of the proposed ABC-PID method, several simulations were carried out comparing the ABC-PID controller with the PSO-PID and a classical PID controller tuned using the Zeigler-Nichols method. Various investigations, such as determining system performance with respect to maximum overshoot, rise and settling time and using maximum sensitivity function under disturbance, were carried out. The results of the investigations show that the ABC-PID is more robust and outperforms other tuning techniques, and demonstrate the effective response of the proposed technique for a robotic manipulator. Furthermore, the ABC-PID controller is implemented on the hardware setup of RAX-1 and the response during exercise showed minute overshoot with lower rise and settling times compared to PSO and Zeigler-Nichols-based controllers. View Full-Text
Keywords: upper limb rehabilitation robot; particle swam optimization (PSO); artificial bee colony (ABC); Ziegler Nichols; Maximum sensitivity upper limb rehabilitation robot; particle swam optimization (PSO); artificial bee colony (ABC); Ziegler Nichols; Maximum sensitivity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Joyo, M.K.; Raza, Y.; Ahmed, S.F.; Billah, M.M.; Kadir, K.; Naidu, K.; Ali, A.; Mohd Yusof, Z. Optimized Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot. Electronics 2019, 8, 826.

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