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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

An Unpowered Sensor Node for Real-Time Water Quality Assessment (Humic Acid Detection)

1
Intelligent Wireless Technology Lab (IWTL), University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 1H9, Canada
2
Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1, Canada
3
Advanced Water Research Lab (AWRL), University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 1H9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100231
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies and Services for Smart Cities)
A zero-power microwave sensor is reported for the real-time assessment of water quality. The proposed structure is able to transmit sensed data directly to a base-station without additional data processing at the wireless sensor node (WSN) which results in less power consumption. The base-station propagates a single tone signal at the frequency of f0/2. At the sensing node, an antenna absorbs that signal and a passive frequency doubler makes its frequency twice, i.e., f0, which will be used as the carrier signal. Two pairs of open-ended coaxial probes are used as liquid sensors; one inside a known reference sample and the other one inside the water under test. A combination of both sensors’ data will be sent to the base-station. A special six-port structure is used for modulation of sensed data over the carrier. At the base-station, a receiver will demodulate the received signal for extracting the sensed data. As an example, the system has been evaluated at f0 = 2.45 GHz for the detection of Humic-Acid levels as a common contaminant of river waters. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of things (IoT); real-time assessment; reflection-based; six-port structure; unpowered; wireless sensor node (WSN) Internet of things (IoT); real-time assessment; reflection-based; six-port structure; unpowered; wireless sensor node (WSN)
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Mirzavand, R.; Honari, M.M.; Laribi, B.; Khorshidi, B.; Sadrzadeh, M.; Mousavi, P. An Unpowered Sensor Node for Real-Time Water Quality Assessment (Humic Acid Detection). Electronics 2018, 7, 231.

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