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Electronics 2018, 7(10), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100231

An Unpowered Sensor Node for Real-Time Water Quality Assessment (Humic Acid Detection)

1
Intelligent Wireless Technology Lab (IWTL), University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 1H9, Canada
2
Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1, Canada
3
Advanced Water Research Lab (AWRL), University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 1H9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies and Services for Smart Cities)
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Abstract

A zero-power microwave sensor is reported for the real-time assessment of water quality. The proposed structure is able to transmit sensed data directly to a base-station without additional data processing at the wireless sensor node (WSN) which results in less power consumption. The base-station propagates a single tone signal at the frequency of f0/2. At the sensing node, an antenna absorbs that signal and a passive frequency doubler makes its frequency twice, i.e., f0, which will be used as the carrier signal. Two pairs of open-ended coaxial probes are used as liquid sensors; one inside a known reference sample and the other one inside the water under test. A combination of both sensors’ data will be sent to the base-station. A special six-port structure is used for modulation of sensed data over the carrier. At the base-station, a receiver will demodulate the received signal for extracting the sensed data. As an example, the system has been evaluated at f0 = 2.45 GHz for the detection of Humic-Acid levels as a common contaminant of river waters. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of things (IoT); real-time assessment; reflection-based; six-port structure; unpowered; wireless sensor node (WSN) Internet of things (IoT); real-time assessment; reflection-based; six-port structure; unpowered; wireless sensor node (WSN)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mirzavand, R.; Honari, M.M.; Laribi, B.; Khorshidi, B.; Sadrzadeh, M.; Mousavi, P. An Unpowered Sensor Node for Real-Time Water Quality Assessment (Humic Acid Detection). Electronics 2018, 7, 231.

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