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Electronics, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The real-time sensors are essential for water pollution detection to prevent unhealthy water usage. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Metamaterial-Based Highly Isolated MIMO Antenna for Portable Wireless Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100267
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a metamaterial structure is presented to lower the mutual coupling between the closely spaced microstrip patch antenna elements. Two elements Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna is closely placed with each other at edge to edge separation of 0.135λ
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In this paper, a metamaterial structure is presented to lower the mutual coupling between the closely spaced microstrip patch antenna elements. Two elements Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna is closely placed with each other at edge to edge separation of 0.135 λ 0 (7 mm). Isolation improvement of 9 dB is achieved by keeping the metamaterial structure in between the MIMO elements. With the proposed structure, the isolation is achieved around −24.5 dB. Due to low ECC, high gain, low channel capacity loss and very low mutual coupling between elements, the proposed antenna is a good candidate for the MIMO applications. The proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. A reasonable agreement between simulated and measured results is observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessArticle A New Method of the Pattern Storage and Recognition in Oscillatory Neural Networks Based on Resistive Switches
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100266
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Development of neuromorphic systems based on new nanoelectronics materials and devices is of immediate interest for solving the problems of cognitive technology and cybernetics. Computational modeling of two- and three-oscillator schemes with thermally coupled VO2-switches is used to demonstrate a novel
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Development of neuromorphic systems based on new nanoelectronics materials and devices is of immediate interest for solving the problems of cognitive technology and cybernetics. Computational modeling of two- and three-oscillator schemes with thermally coupled VO2-switches is used to demonstrate a novel method of pattern storage and recognition in an impulse oscillator neural network (ONN), based on the high-order synchronization effect. The method allows storage of many patterns, and their number depends on the number of synchronous states Ns. The modeling demonstrates attainment of Ns of several orders both for a three-oscillator scheme Ns ~ 650 and for a two-oscillator scheme Ns ~ 260. A number of regularities are obtained, in particular, an optimal strength of oscillator coupling is revealed when Ns has a maximum. Algorithms of vector storage, network training, and test vector recognition are suggested, where the parameter of synchronization effectiveness is used as a degree of match. It is shown that, to reduce the ambiguity of recognition, the number coordinated in each vector should be at least one unit less than the number of oscillators. The demonstrated results are of a general character, and they may be applied in ONNs with various mechanisms and oscillator coupling topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Reliability of Variable Speed Pumped-Storage Plant
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100265
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
The multi-channel (MC) back-to-back voltage source inverter (VSI)-fed doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) is emerging as a highly interesting topic in large-rated variable speed pumped-storage power plants (PSPP) in view of cost, optimal efficiency, and space requirements. Although the VSI is the fundamental
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The multi-channel (MC) back-to-back voltage source inverter (VSI)-fed doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) is emerging as a highly interesting topic in large-rated variable speed pumped-storage power plants (PSPP) in view of cost, optimal efficiency, and space requirements. Although the VSI is the fundamental part of the drive controlling the active/reactive power of the plant, redundancy is presently not adopted in practice causing the unit as a whole to shut down upon a failure in the converter and control circuit. This paper evaluates a large-rated (250 MW) DFIM-fed variable-speed unit of a PSPP in terms of its reliability and availability. A Markov model is developed to assess the reliability of the drive based on a number of factors including survivability and annual failure rate (FIT). Further, the Markov model is applied to different PSPPs for comparison of reliability among them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Electric Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Ethical and Legal Dilemma of Autonomous Vehicles: Study on Driving Decision-Making Model under the Emergency Situations of Red Light-Running Behaviors
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100264
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are supposed to identify obstacles automatically and form appropriate emergency strategies constantly to ensure driving safety and improve traffic efficiency. However, not all collisions will be avoidable, and AVs are required to make difficult decisions involving ethical and legal factors
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Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are supposed to identify obstacles automatically and form appropriate emergency strategies constantly to ensure driving safety and improve traffic efficiency. However, not all collisions will be avoidable, and AVs are required to make difficult decisions involving ethical and legal factors under emergency situations. In this paper, the ethical and legal factors are introduced into the driving decision-making (DDM) model under emergency situations evoked by red light-running behaviors. In this specific situation, 16 factors related to vehicle-road-environment are considered as impact indicators of DDM, especially the duration of red light (RL), the type of abnormal target (AT-T), the number of abnormal target (AT-N) and the state of abnormal target (AT-S), which indicate legal and ethical components. Secondly, through principal component analysis, seven indicators are selected as input variables of the model. Furthermore, feasible DDM, including braking + going straight, braking + turning left, braking + turning right, is taken as the output variable of the model. Finally, the model chosen to establish DDM is the T-S fuzzy neural network (TSFNN), which has better performance, compared to back propagation neural network (BPNN) to verify the accuracy of TSFNN. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance Improvement for PMSM DTC System through Composite Active Vectors Modulation
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100263
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a novel direct torque control (DTC) scheme based on composite active vectors modulation (CVM) is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The precondition of the accurate compensations of torque error and flux linkage error is that the errors can
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In this paper, a novel direct torque control (DTC) scheme based on composite active vectors modulation (CVM) is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The precondition of the accurate compensations of torque error and flux linkage error is that the errors can be compensated fully during the entire control period. Therefore, the compensational effects of torque error and flux linkage error in different operating conditions of the PMSM are analyzed firstly, and then, the operating conditions of the PMSM are divided into three cases according to the error compensational effects. To bring the novel composite active vectors modulation strategy smoothly, the effect factors are used to represent the error compensational effects provided by the applied active vectors. The error compensational effects supplied by single active vector or synthetic voltage vector are analyzed while the PMSM is operated in three different operating conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed CVM-DTC is verified through the experimental results on a 100-W PMSM drive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Position Determination of Coherent Pulse Trains Based on Doppler and Doppler Rate
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100262
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
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Abstract
Direct Position Determination (DPD) of coherent pulse trains using a single moving sensor is considered in this paper. Note that when a large observation window and relative maneuvering course between emitter and receiver both exist, the localization accuracy of Doppler frequency shift only
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Direct Position Determination (DPD) of coherent pulse trains using a single moving sensor is considered in this paper. Note that when a large observation window and relative maneuvering course between emitter and receiver both exist, the localization accuracy of Doppler frequency shift only based DPD will decline because of the noticeable Doppler frequency shift variations. To circumvent this problem, a Doppler frequency shift and Doppler rate based DPD approach using a single moving sensor is proposed in this paper. First, the signal model of the intercepted coherent pulse trains is established where the Doppler rate is taken into consideration. Then, the Maximum Likelihood based DPD cost function is given, and the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB) on localization is derived whereafter. At last, the Monto Carlo simulations demonstrate that in one exemplary scenario the Doppler frequency shift variations are noticeable with a large observation window and the proposed method has superior performance to the DPD, which is only based on the Doppler frequency shift. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Fixed-Frequency Sliding-Mode Controller for Fourth-Order Class-D Amplifier
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100261
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Since the parasitic voltage ringing and switching power losses limit the operation of active devices at elevated frequencies; therefore, a higher-order inductor-capacitor (LC) filter is commonly used, which offers extended attenuation above the cutoff frequency and thus, improves the total harmonic distortion (THD)
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Since the parasitic voltage ringing and switching power losses limit the operation of active devices at elevated frequencies; therefore, a higher-order inductor-capacitor (LC) filter is commonly used, which offers extended attenuation above the cutoff frequency and thus, improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the amplifier. This paper applies the concept of integral sliding-mode control to a fourth-order class-D amplifier. Two fixed-frequency double integral sliding-mode (FFDISM) controllers are proposed, where one uses the inductor current while the other involves the capacitor current feedback. Their equivalent control equations are derived, but from the realization viewpoint, the controller using the capacitor current feedback is advantageous and, therefore, is selected for final implementation. The performance of the proposed FFDISM controller for fourth-order GaN class-D amplifier is confirmed using simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Free-Space Materials Characterization by Reflection and Transmission Measurements using Frequency-by-Frequency and Multi-Frequency Algorithms
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100260
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The knowledge of the electromagnetic constitutive properties of materials is crucial in many applications. Free-space methods are widely used for this purpose, despite their inherent practical difficulties. This paper describes an affordable free-space experimental setup for the characterization of flat samples in 1–6
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The knowledge of the electromagnetic constitutive properties of materials is crucial in many applications. Free-space methods are widely used for this purpose, despite their inherent practical difficulties. This paper describes an affordable free-space experimental setup for the characterization of flat samples in 1–6 GHz in a non-anechoic environment. The extracted properties are obtained from the calibrated Scattering Parameters, using a frequency-by-frequency solution or a multi-frequency reconstruction. For the first, we describe how the Time-Domain Gating can be implemented and used for filtering the signals. For the latter, a weighting factor is introduced to balance the reflection and transmission data, allowing one to have a more favorable configuration. The different role of transmission and reflection measurements on the achievable results is analyzed with regard to experimental uncertainties and different noise scenarios. Results from the two strategies are analyzed and compared. Good agreement between simulation, measurement and literature is obtained. According to the reported results for dielectric materials, there is no need of filtering the data by a Time-Domain Gating in case of the multi-frequency approach. Experimental results for Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) samples validate both the setup and the processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Imaging and Its Application)
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Open AccessArticle Ultraviolet Irradiation Effects on luminescent Centres in Bismuth-Doped and Bismuth-Erbium Co-Doped Optical Fibers via Atomic Layer Deposition
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100259
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The effects of ultraviolet irradiation on luminescent centres in bismuth-doped (BDF) and bismuth/erbium co-doped (BEDF) optical fibers were examined in this study. The fibers were fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition combining with atomic layer deposition method. The fibers were exposed to irradiation
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The effects of ultraviolet irradiation on luminescent centres in bismuth-doped (BDF) and bismuth/erbium co-doped (BEDF) optical fibers were examined in this study. The fibers were fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition combining with atomic layer deposition method. The fibers were exposed to irradiation from a 193 nm pulsed wave argon fluoride laser, and an 830 nm wavelength laser diode pump source was employed for excitation. The experimental results showed that, for the BDF, the transmission loss was slightly reduced and the luminescence intensity was increased at the bismuth-related active aluminum centre (BAC-Al). Then, for the BEDF, the transmission loss was increased a little and the luminescence intensity was also increased at the BAC-Al centre. However, the luminescence intensity was decreased at approximately 1420 nm of the bismuth-related active silica centre (BAC-Si) for all fiber samples. One possible formation mechanism for luminescence intensity changes was probably associated with the valence state transfer of bismuth ions. The other possible mechanism was that the ArF-driven two-photon process caused luminescence changes in BAC-Al and BAC-Si. It was very important to reveal nature of luminescence properties of Bi-doped and Bi/Er co-doped optical fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Input-Aware Implication Selection Scheme Utilizing ATPG for Efficient Concurrent Error Detection
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100258
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Recently, concurrent error detection enabled through invariant relationships between different wires in a circuit has been proposed. Because there are many such implications in a circuit, selection strategies have been developed to select the most valuable implications for inclusion in the checker hardware
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Recently, concurrent error detection enabled through invariant relationships between different wires in a circuit has been proposed. Because there are many such implications in a circuit, selection strategies have been developed to select the most valuable implications for inclusion in the checker hardware such that a sufficiently high probability of error detection ( P d e t e c t i o n ) is achieved. These algorithms, however, due to their heuristic nature cannot guarantee a lossless P d e t e c t i o n . In this paper, we develop a new input-aware implication selection algorithm with the help of ATPG which minimizes loss on P d e t e c t i o n . In our algorithm, the detectability of errors for each candidate implication is carefully evaluated using error prone vectors. The evaluation results are then utilized to select the most efficient candidates for achieving optimal P d e t e c t i o n . The experimental results on 15 representative combinatorial benchmark circuits from the MCNC benchmarks suite show that the implications selected from our algorithm achieve better P d e t e c t i o n in comparison to the state of the art. The proposed method also offers better performance, up to 41.10%, in terms of the proposed impact-level metric, which is the ratio of achieved P d e t e c t i o n to the implication count. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Near Field Antenna Measurement Sampling Strategies: From Linear to Nonlinear Interpolation
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100257
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this review paper is to discuss some of the advanced sampling techniques proposed in the last decade in the framework of planar near-field measurements, clarifying the theoretical basis of the different techniques, and showing the advantages in terms of number
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The aim of this review paper is to discuss some of the advanced sampling techniques proposed in the last decade in the framework of planar near-field measurements, clarifying the theoretical basis of the different techniques, and showing the advantages in terms of number of measurements. Instead of discussing the details of the techniques, the attention is focused on their theoretical bases to give a gentle introduction to the techniques. For each sampling method, examples on a liner array are discussed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimated Reaction Force-Based Bilateral Control between 3DOF Master and Hydraulic Slave Manipulators for Dismantlement
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100256
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a novel bilateral control design based on an estimated reaction force without a force sensor for a three-degree of freedom hydraulic servo system with master–slave manipulators. The proposed method is based upon sliding mode control with sliding perturbation observer (SMCSPO)
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This paper proposes a novel bilateral control design based on an estimated reaction force without a force sensor for a three-degree of freedom hydraulic servo system with master–slave manipulators. The proposed method is based upon sliding mode control with sliding perturbation observer (SMCSPO) using a bilateral control environment. The sliding perturbation observer (SPO) estimates the reaction force at the end effector and second link without using any sensors. The sliding mode control (SMC) is used as a bilateral controller for the robust position tracking and control of the slave device. A bilateral control strategy in a hydraulic servo system provides robust position and force tracking between master and slave. The difference between the reaction force of the slave produced by the effect of the remote environment and the operating force applied to the master by the operator is expressed in the target impedance model. The impedance model is applied to the master and allows the operator to feel the reaction force from the environment. This research experimentally verifies that the slave device can follow the trajectory of the master device using the proposed bilateral control strategy based on the estimated reaction force. This technique will be convenient for three or more degree of freedom (DOF) hydraulic servo systems used in dismantling nuclear power plants. It is worthy to mention that a camera is used for visual feedback on the safety of the environment and workspace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Servoing in Robotics)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Model of a 2-kW IPT Charger with Phase-Shift Control: Validation through the Tuning of the Coupling Factor
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100255
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
When applied to road vehicle electrification, inductive power transfer (IPT) technology has the potential to boost the transition from combustion engines to electric motors powered by a battery pack. This work focuses on the validation of a PSpice circuit model developed as a
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When applied to road vehicle electrification, inductive power transfer (IPT) technology has the potential to boost the transition from combustion engines to electric motors powered by a battery pack. This work focuses on the validation of a PSpice circuit model developed as a replica of a 2-kW IPT prototype with series-series compensation operating at 18.65 kHz. The laboratory prototype has the three stages commonly found in an IPT system: an inverter, controlled by the phase-shift technique, a coil coupling and a load. Simulations were run with the circuit model for three different distances between the two coils of the inductive coupling, all of which are of interest for practical chargers: 125, 150 and 175 mm. The validation approach was based on tuning the magnetic coupling factor for each distance and a set of ten load resistances, until the best match between the simulated and the experimental peak currents supplied by the inverter was found in each case. The coupling factors obtained from the simulation work are in good agreement with their experimental counterparts for the three distances, provided the duty cycle of the inverter output voltage is not too small. The circuit model developed is, therefore, able to reproduce the behavior of the laboratory prototype with sufficient accuracy over a wide range of distances between coils and loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Active EMI Reduction Using Chaotic Modulation in a Buck Converter with Relaxed Output LC Filter
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100254
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
DC-DC buck converters are widely used in portable applications because of their high power efficiency. However, their inherent fast switching releases electromagnetic emissions, making them prominent sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a voltage-controlled buck converter that reduces EMI by using
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DC-DC buck converters are widely used in portable applications because of their high power efficiency. However, their inherent fast switching releases electromagnetic emissions, making them prominent sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a voltage-controlled buck converter that reduces EMI by using a chaotic pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique based on a chaotic triangular ramp generator. The chaotic triangular ramp generator is constructed from a simple on-chip chaotic circuit linked with a symmetrically triangular ramp circuit. The proposed converter can thus operate in the chaotic mode reducing the EMI without requiring any EMI filters. Additionally, using the triangular ramp signal can relax the requirement for a large LC output filter in chaotic mode. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme was experimentally verified with a chaotic triangular ramp generator embedded in a voltage-mode controller buck converter using a 0.18 µm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process. The measurement results from a prototype showed that the EMI improvement from the proposed scheme is approximately 14.53 dB at the fundamental switching frequency with respect to the standard fixed-frequency PWM reference case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Event-Triggered and Memory-Based Sliding Mode Variable Structure Control for Memristive Systems
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100253
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper is concerned with a novel event-triggered sliding mode variable structure control (ESMC) scheme to achieve robust stabilization of memristive systems (MSs). First, a memory-based sliding surface, including the past and the current information of the system states, is introduced. Two switching
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This paper is concerned with a novel event-triggered sliding mode variable structure control (ESMC) scheme to achieve robust stabilization of memristive systems (MSs). First, a memory-based sliding surface, including the past and the current information of the system states, is introduced. Two switching gain matrices of such kinds of switching surfaces, which satisfy the guaranteed cost performance of the sliding reduced order dynamics, are achieved by employing linear matrix inequality techniques. Second, a sliding mode controller using an event-triggered mechanism is constructed to ensure that the trajectories of the uncertain MS slide towards the proposed memory-based switching hyperplane, and thus, the stabilization of entire MSs is reached. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed results is demonstrated through simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments on Time-Delay Systems and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle PVT-Robust CMOS Programmable Chaotic Oscillator: Synchronization of Two 7-Scroll Attractors
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100252
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Designing chaotic oscillators using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology for generating multi-scroll attractors has been a challenge. That way, we introduce a current-mode piecewise-linear (PWL) function based on CMOS cells that allow programmable generation of 2–7-scroll chaotic attractors. The mathematical model of
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Designing chaotic oscillators using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit technology for generating multi-scroll attractors has been a challenge. That way, we introduce a current-mode piecewise-linear (PWL) function based on CMOS cells that allow programmable generation of 2–7-scroll chaotic attractors. The mathematical model of the chaotic oscillator designed herein has four coefficients and a PWL function, which can be varied to provide a high value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The coefficients are implemented electronically by designing operational transconductance amplifiers that allow programmability of their transconductances. Design simulations of the chaotic oscillator are provided for the 0.35 μ m CMOS technology. Post-layout and process–voltage–temperature (PVT) variation simulations demonstrate robustness of the multi-scroll chaotic attractors. Finally, we highlight the synchronization of two seven-scroll attractors in a master–slave topology by generalized Hamiltonian forms and observer approach. Simulation results show that the synchronized CMOS chaotic oscillators are robust to PVT variations and are suitable for chaotic secure communication applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems & Control Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Label Stacking Scenarios in Hybrid Wavelength and Code-Switched GMPLS Networks
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100251
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is a promising solution to implement high-speed internet protocol (IP) networks by reducing the layer number. To meet the increasing demand for data traffic, optical packet switching (OPS) is integrated under IP to provide high bandwidth to end users.
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Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is a promising solution to implement high-speed internet protocol (IP) networks by reducing the layer number. To meet the increasing demand for data traffic, optical packet switching (OPS) is integrated under IP to provide high bandwidth to end users. Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) is perfectly compatible with the routing algorithm in IP/MPLS as it supports packet-switching functions. In this paper, we investigate the label stacking scenarios in GMPLS networks. In GMPLS, label stacking is done to reduce the node complexity by appending multiple labels to a single packet. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) signals have been widely used as identifying labels. As the labels can be permutated among the wavelengths or code dimensions, the structure of a label stack can be varied. However, studies on the relationship between label stacking scenarios and network performance are limited. To investigate this issue, we propose three label stacking models: sequential code distribution; sequential wavelength distribution, and random label distribution. The simulation results show that the sequential wavelength assignment, wherein the labels are uniformly distributed among the wavelengths, exhibits the best system performance in terms of the label-error rate (LER). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessReview Source Anonymity against Global Adversary in WSNs Using Dummy Packet Injections: A Survey
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100250
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Source anonymity in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) becomes a real concern in several applications such as tracking and monitoring. A global adversary that has sophisticated resources, high computation and full view of the network is an obvious threat to such applications. The network
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Source anonymity in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) becomes a real concern in several applications such as tracking and monitoring. A global adversary that has sophisticated resources, high computation and full view of the network is an obvious threat to such applications. The network and applications need to be protected and secured to provide the expected outcome. Source anonymity is one of the fundamental WSNs security issues. It is all about preventing the adversary from reaching the origin by analyzing the traffic of the network. There are many methods to provide source anonymity, which is also known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). One of these methods is based on dummy packets. The basic notion is to inject the network with dummy packets to confuse the adversary about the location of the transmitting source node. This paper provides a survey of protocols for anonymity that use dummy packet injections. We discuss each technique from the point of their advantages and disadvantages. Further, We provide a comparison for the most promising techniques provided in the literature which use dummy packet injections. A comparison for the adversary assumptions and capabilities will be provided as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Comprehensive Analysis of Smart Grid Systems against Cyber-Physical Attacks
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100249
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of smart grid security against cyber-physical attacks on its distinct functional components. We discuss: (1) a function-based methodology to evaluate smart grid resilience against cyber-physical attacks; (2) a Bayesian Attack Graph for Smart Grid (BAGS)
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In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of smart grid security against cyber-physical attacks on its distinct functional components. We discuss: (1) a function-based methodology to evaluate smart grid resilience against cyber-physical attacks; (2) a Bayesian Attack Graph for Smart Grid (BAGS) tool to compute the likelihood of the compromise of cyber components of the smart grid system; (3) risk analysis methodology, which combines the results of the function-based methodology and BAGS to quantify risk for each cyber component of the smart grid; and (4) efficient resource allocation in the smart grid cyber domain using reinforcement learning (extension of BAGS tool) to compute optimal policies about whether to perform vulnerability assessment or patch a cyber system of the smart grid whose vulnerability has already been discovered. The results and analysis of these approaches help power engineers to identify failures in advance from one system component to another, develop robust and more resilient power systems and improve situational awareness and the response of the system to cyber-physical attacks. This work sheds light on the interdependency between the cyber domain and power grid and demonstrates that the security of both worlds requires the utmost attention. We hope this work assists power engineers to protect the grid against future cyber-physical attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Physical Systems)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Billeci, L.; et al. Automatic Detection of Atrial Fibrillation and Other Arrhythmias in ECG Recordings Acquired by a Smartphone Device. Electronics 2018, 7, 199
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100248
Received: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to our published paper [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Processing and Wearable Systems for Effective Human Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle A Novel High-Performance Low-Cost Double-Upset Tolerant Latch Design
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100247
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Single event double upsets (SEDUs) caused by charge sharing have been an important contributor to the soft error in integrated circuits. Most of the up-to-date double-upset (DU) tolerant latches suffer from high costs in terms of delay, power and area. In this paper,
[...] Read more.
Single event double upsets (SEDUs) caused by charge sharing have been an important contributor to the soft error in integrated circuits. Most of the up-to-date double-upset (DU) tolerant latches suffer from high costs in terms of delay, power and area. In this paper, we propose a novel high-performance low-cost double-upset tolerant (HLDUT) latch. Simulation waveforms have validated the double-upset tolerance of the proposed latch. Besides, detailed comparisons demonstrate that our design saves 805.24% delay-power-area product (DPAP) on average compared with other considered up-to-date double-upset tolerant latches, which means the proposed latch is a promising candidate for future highly reliable low-cost applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in FPGA Reverse Engineering
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100246
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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In this paper, we review recent advances in reverse engineering with an emphasis on FPGA devices and experimentally verified advantages and limitations of reverse engineering tools. The paper first introduces essential components for programming Xilinx FPGAs (Xilinx, San Jose, CA, USA), such as
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we review recent advances in reverse engineering with an emphasis on FPGA devices and experimentally verified advantages and limitations of reverse engineering tools. The paper first introduces essential components for programming Xilinx FPGAs (Xilinx, San Jose, CA, USA), such as Xilinx Design Language (XDL), XDL Report (XDLRC), and bitstream. Then, reverse engineering tools (Debit, BIL, and Bit2ncd), which extract the bitstream from the external memory to the FPGA and utilize it to recover the netlist, are reviewed, and their limitations are discussed. This paper also covers supplementary tools (Rapidsmith) that can adjust the FPGA design flow to support reverse engineering. Finally, reverse engineering projects for non-Xilinx products, such as Lattice FPGAs (Icestorm) and Altera FPGAs (QUIP), are introduced to compare the reverse engineering capabilities by various commercial FPGA products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
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Open AccessArticle 4T Analog MOS Control-High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Plasma Switching Power Supply for Water Purification in Industrial Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100245
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
High-power plasma power supply is very useful for many industrial and medical applications. Plasma is generated artificially in the laboratory or industry by applying the electric or magnetic field. In this manuscript, we presented the simple 4T analog MOS control high voltage high
[...] Read more.
High-power plasma power supply is very useful for many industrial and medical applications. Plasma is generated artificially in the laboratory or industry by applying the electric or magnetic field. In this manuscript, we presented the simple 4T analog MOS control high voltage high frequency inverter circuit as a plasma power supply using modulation index technique. The presented plasma power supply operated at 25 kHz frequency and 10 kV peak to peak voltage. It generates a 0 V to 10 kV controllable electric field. The generated electric field is applied and produces plasma, which can be used for many industrial applications. A 10 kV to 5 kW plasma power supply has been practically developed based on the proposed topology and experimentally tested and, additionally, excellent output power conversion efficiency is achieved. From these results, the 4T analog MOS control high voltage high frequency (HVHF) plasma switching power supply is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Coupled-Region Visual Tracking Formulation Based on a Discriminative Correlation Filter Bank
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100244
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
The visual tracking algorithm based on discriminative correlation filter (DCF) has shown excellent performance in recent years, especially as the higher tracking speed meets the real-time requirement of object tracking. However, when the target is partially occluded, the traditional single discriminative correlation filter
[...] Read more.
The visual tracking algorithm based on discriminative correlation filter (DCF) has shown excellent performance in recent years, especially as the higher tracking speed meets the real-time requirement of object tracking. However, when the target is partially occluded, the traditional single discriminative correlation filter will not be able to effectively learn information reliability, resulting in tracker drift and even failure. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel tracking-by-detection framework, which uses multiple discriminative correlation filters called discriminative correlation filter bank (DCFB), corresponding to different target sub-regions and global region patches to combine and optimize the final correlation output in the frequency domain. In tracking, the sub-region patches are zero-padded to the same size as the global target region, which can effectively avoid noise aliasing during correlation operation, thereby improving the robustness of the discriminative correlation filter. Considering that the sub-region target motion model is constrained by the global target region, adding the global region appearance model to our framework will completely preserve the intrinsic structure of the target, thus effectively utilizing the discriminative information of the visible sub-region to mitigate tracker drift when partial occlusion occurs. In addition, an adaptive scale estimation scheme is incorporated into our algorithm to make the tracker more robust against potential challenging attributes. The experimental results from the OTB-2015 and VOT-2015 datasets demonstrate that our method performs favorably compared with several state-of-the-art trackers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low Power Robust Early Output Asynchronous Block Carry Lookahead Adder with Redundant Carry Logic
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100243
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Adder is an important datapath unit of a general-purpose microprocessor or a digital signal processor. In the nanoelectronics era, the design of an adder that is modular and which can withstand variations in process, voltage and temperature are of interest. In this context,
[...] Read more.
Adder is an important datapath unit of a general-purpose microprocessor or a digital signal processor. In the nanoelectronics era, the design of an adder that is modular and which can withstand variations in process, voltage and temperature are of interest. In this context, this article presents a new robust early output asynchronous block carry lookahead adder (BCLA) with redundant carry logic (BCLARC) that has a reduced power-cycle time product (PCTP) and is a low power design. The proposed asynchronous BCLARC is implemented using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adheres to the 4-phase return-to-zero (RTZ) and the 4-phase return-to-one (RTO) handshaking. Many existing asynchronous ripple-carry adders (RCAs), carry lookahead adders (CLAs) and carry select adders (CSLAs) were implemented alongside to perform a comparison based on a 32/28 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The 32-bit addition was considered for an example. For implementation using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and subject to the 4-phase RTZ handshaking (4-phase RTO handshaking), the proposed BCLARC which is robust and of early output type achieves: (i) 8% (5.7%) reduction in PCTP compared to the optimum RCA, (ii) 14.9% (15.5%) reduction in PCTP compared to the optimum BCLARC, and (iii) 26% (25.5%) reduction in PCTP compared to the optimum CSLA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
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Open AccessArticle Simple Torque Control Method for Hybrid Stepper Motors Implemented in FPGA
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100242
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
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Abstract
Stepper motors are employed in a wide range of consumer and industrial applications. Their use is simple: a digital device generates pulse-bursts and a direction bit towards a power driver that produces the 2-phase currents feeding the motor windings. Despite its simplicity, this
[...] Read more.
Stepper motors are employed in a wide range of consumer and industrial applications. Their use is simple: a digital device generates pulse-bursts and a direction bit towards a power driver that produces the 2-phase currents feeding the motor windings. Despite its simplicity, this open-loop approach fails if the torque load exceeds the motor capacity, so the motor and driver should be oversized at the expense of efficiency and cost. Field-Oriented closed-loop Control (FOC) solves the problem, and the recent availability of low cost electronics devices like Digital Signal Processors, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), or even Microcontrollers with dedicated peripherals, fostered the investigation and implementation of several variants of the FOC method. In this paper, a simple and economic FOC torque control method for hybrid stepper motors is presented. The load angle is corrected accordingly to the actual shaft position through pulse-bursts and direction commands issued towards a commercial stepper driver, which manages the 2-phase winding currents. Thanks to the FPGA implementation, the control loop updates the electrical position every 50 μs only, thus allowing a load angle accuracy of −1/100 rad for a rotor velocity up to 750 rev/min, as shown in the reported experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
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Open AccessArticle SHIL and DHIL Simulations of Nonlinear Control Methods Applied for Power Converters Using Embedded Systems
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100241
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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In this work, a new real-time Simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first one (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both model and control laws are inserted in the same
[...] Read more.
In this work, a new real-time Simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first one (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both model and control laws are inserted in the same Digital Signal Processor (DSP), and in the second approach (Double Hardware in The Loop: DHIL), the equations are loaded in different embedded systems. With this methodology, linear and nonlinear control techniques can be designed and compared in a quick and cheap real-time realization of the proposed systems, ideal for both students and engineers who are interested in learning and validating converters performance. The methodology can be applied to buck, boost, buck-boost, flyback, SEPIC and 3-phase AC-DC boost converters showing that the new and high performance embedded systems can evaluate distinct nonlinear controllers. The approach is done using matlab-simulink over commodity Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processors (TI-DSPs). The main purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of proposed real-time implementations without using expensive HIL systems such as Opal-RT and Typhoon-HL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Printed Circuit Board Drilling Machine Using Recyclables
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100240
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
The implementation of a printed circuit board (PCB) drilling machine using recyclable materials and computer-aided control is presented. A mechanical system using a DC motor for movement on the X and Y axes, and a transmission mechanism by belts, pulleys, and a worm
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The implementation of a printed circuit board (PCB) drilling machine using recyclable materials and computer-aided control is presented. A mechanical system using a DC motor for movement on the X and Y axes, and a transmission mechanism by belts, pulleys, and a worm screw was made. For the Z axis, a mechanism based on a worm screw, nuts, and a stepper motor was implemented. The main board has two microcontrollers communicating in a master-slave configuration via a serial protocol. A real-time operating system (OSA) was implemented to optimize the data flow to the computer using the USB protocol, for communication with the slave microcontroller, positioning the Cartesian axes, and control the motors. The slave is responsible for monitoring the status of the encoders and limit switches, as well as the information delivery to the master. A Matlab-based user interface was developed to determine the coordinates of the holes to be drilled by processing a jpg image. This also allows the user to control the DC motors using PWM signals via configurable parameters of PID controllers. The end result is a drilling machine which able to operate both manually and via a computer, for drilling PCBs of a maximum size of 24 × 40 cm. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle On the Reduction of Transmission Complexity in MIMO-WCDMA Frequency-Selective Fading Orientations via Eigenvalue Analysis
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100239
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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In this paper, a novel transmission strategy for Mutliple Input Multiple Output Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (MIMO-WCDMA) orientations operating in frequency-selective fading environments is investigated, in terms of overall algorithmic complexity reduction. To this end, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed on
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel transmission strategy for Mutliple Input Multiple Output Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (MIMO-WCDMA) orientations operating in frequency-selective fading environments is investigated, in terms of overall algorithmic complexity reduction. To this end, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed on the received data matrix, in order to define the significant terms that are taken into account during transmission matrix formulation. According to the presented results, feedback information of only the primary eigenvector of the corresponding covariance matrix of the received data matrix is required, in order to maintain the mean Bit Error Rate (BER) at acceptable levels. In particular, a complexity reduction of up to 10% can be achieved, when comparing BER values derived by the selection of all components of the received covariance matrix during transmission matrix formulation, and the corresponding BER when selecting half of the components. This reduction is maintained to 10%, when considering a realistic four-element antenna design; however, in this case mean BER inaccuracy is further reduced to 1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Orthogonal Resource Sharing Optimization for D2D Communication in LTE-A Cellular Networks: A Fractional Frequency Reuse-Based Approach
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100238
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract
To handle the fast-growing demand for high data rate applications, the capacity of cellular networks should be reinforced. However, the available radio resources in cellular networks are scarce, and their formulation is expensive. The state-of-the art solution to this problem is a new
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To handle the fast-growing demand for high data rate applications, the capacity of cellular networks should be reinforced. However, the available radio resources in cellular networks are scarce, and their formulation is expensive. The state-of-the art solution to this problem is a new local networking technology known as the device-to-device (D2D) communication. D2D communications have great capability in achieving outstanding performance by reusing the existing uplink cellular channel resources. In D2D communication, two devices in close proximity can communicate directly without traversing data traffic through the evolved-NodeB (eNB). This results in a reduced traffic load to the eNB, reduced end-to-end delay, and improved spectral efficiency and system performance. However, enabling D2D communication in an LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) cellular network causes severe interference to traditional cellular users and D2D pairs. To maintain the quality of service (QoS) of the cellular users and D2D pairs and reduce the interference, we propose a distance-based resource allocation and power control scheme using fractional frequency reuse (FFR) technique. We calculate the system outage probability, total throughput and spectrum efficiency for both cellular users and D2D pairs in terms of their signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme reduces interference significantly and improves system performance compared to the random resource allocation (RRA) and resource allocation (RA) without sectorization scheme. Full article
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