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Open AccessArticle

Sudoku Inspired Designs for Radar Waveforms and Antenna Arrays

Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Sensors and Electronics Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John Ball
Electronics 2017, 6(1), 13;
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio and Radar Signal Processing)
PDF [1630 KB, uploaded 9 February 2017]


Sudoku puzzles, often seen in magazines and newspapers, are logic-based challenges where each entry within the puzzle is comprised of symbols adhering to row, column and box constraints. Previously, we had investigated their potential in frequency-hopped waveforms to achieve desirable radar ambiguity functions and compared them with random, as well as the more familiar Costas sequences. This paper further examines the properties of Sudoku codes in more detail through computational search and analysis. We examine the co-hit and cross-hit arrays, defined as the correlation between two sequences, to quickly and efficiently evaluate numerous Sudoku puzzles. Additionally, we investigate the use of Sudoku puzzles for antenna applications, including array interleaving, array thinning and random element spacing. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sudoku; Costas; frequency hopped; array thinning; beamforming Sudoku; Costas; frequency hopped; array thinning; beamforming

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bufler, T.D.; Narayanan, R.M.; Sherbondy, K.D. Sudoku Inspired Designs for Radar Waveforms and Antenna Arrays. Electronics 2017, 6, 13.

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