# Dual-Channel Secure Communication Based on Wideband Optical Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers Subject to Intensity Modulation Optical Injection

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Principles and Theoretical Model

## 3. Numerical Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Synchronization Characteristics of Wideband Chaos Signals

#### 3.2. Performance of Secure Communication

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Schematic of dual-channel chaotic communication system subject to IM optical injection. ML, master laser; TL, transmitter lasers; RL, receiver lasers; MZM, Mach–Zehnder modulators; OC, optical coupler; VOA, variable optical attenuators; EDFA, erbium doped fiber amplifier; PD, photodetector.

**Figure 2.**Time series of (

**a**,

**e**) the first channel and (

**b**,

**f**) the second channel of TLs and RLs. (

**c**,

**g**) Power spectra of TLs. (

**d**,

**h**) Phase portraits of TLs.

**Figure 4.**(

**a**,

**c**) Message 1 and (

**b**,

**d**) Message 2 of the original, decrypted (

**a**,

**b**) Q (t) signals and the original, decrypted (

**c**,

**d**) I (t) signals.

**Figure 5.**Constellations of the original, decrypted (

**a**–

**c**) Message 1 and (

**d**–

**f**) Message 2 transmission in (

**a**,

**d**) 10 km (first column), (

**b**,

**e**) 20 km (second column) optical fiber and (

**c**,

**f**) attack (third column).

**Figure 8.**Parameter mismatch investigation for (

**a**) Message 1 after 120 km transmission and (

**b**) Message 2 after 20 km transmission.

Symbol | Parameter | Value |
---|---|---|

$\mathrm{\Gamma}$ | linewidth enhancement factor | 4.5 |

${G}_{n}$ | gain coefficient | 10^{−12} m^{3}/s |

${N}_{0}$ | carrier density at transparency | 10^{24} m^{−3} |

${\tau}_{p}$ | photon lifetime | 2 ps |

${\tau}_{n}$ | carrier lifetime | 2 ns |

${I}_{th}$ | threshold current | 18 mA |

$q$ | electronic charge | 1.602 × 10^{−19} C |

$V$ | volume of the active region | 1.5 × 10^{−16} m^{3} |

${\xi}_{i}$ | injection ratio | 40 ns^{−1} |

${f}_{i}$ | frequency detuning | −30 GHz |

${\tau}_{in}$ | round-trip time | 9 ps |

${r}_{0}$ | amplitude reflectivity of the laser facet | 0.3 |

${r}_{inj}$ | amplitude reflectivity of external mirror | 0.1 |

${k}_{MZM}$ | message modulation depth | 0.08 |

$\phi $ | the normalized bias | 0.785 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhou, P.; Li, N.
Dual-Channel Secure Communication Based on Wideband Optical Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers Subject to Intensity Modulation Optical Injection. *Electronics* **2023**, *12*, 509.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030509

**AMA Style**

Wang Y, Huang Y, Zhou P, Li N.
Dual-Channel Secure Communication Based on Wideband Optical Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers Subject to Intensity Modulation Optical Injection. *Electronics*. 2023; 12(3):509.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030509

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Youming, Yu Huang, Pei Zhou, and Nianqiang Li.
2023. "Dual-Channel Secure Communication Based on Wideband Optical Chaos in Semiconductor Lasers Subject to Intensity Modulation Optical Injection" *Electronics* 12, no. 3: 509.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030509