Next Article in Journal
Runtime Adaptive IoMT Node on Multi-Core Processor Platform
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of Self-Heating Driven Leakage Current Properties of Gate-All-Around Field-Effect Transistors Using Neural Network Modeling and Genetic Algorithm
Previous Article in Special Issue
Electrical Characterization of Conductive Threads for Textile Electronics
Article

Wearable Textile Antenna with a Graphene Sheet or Conductive Fabric Patch for the 2.45 GHz Band

1
Department of Electronic Engineering, Hellenic Mediterranean University, 73133 Chania, Crete, Greece
2
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou, Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ramón Gonzalo
Electronics 2021, 10(21), 2571; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212571
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 18 October 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile and Wearable Antennas)
Textile patch antennas of simple rectangular, triangular, and circular shape, for operation in the 2.4–2.5 GHz free industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band, are designed in this paper. Thirty-six patch antenna prototypes have been fabricated by engaging different patch geometries, patch materials, and substrate materials. Each patch antenna is designed after optimization by a genetic algorithm, which evolves the initial dimensions and feeding position of the prototype’s microstrip counterpart to the final optimal geometrical characteristics of the wearable prototype (with the originally selected shape and materials). The impact of the design and fabrication details on antenna performance were thoroughly investigated. Graphene sheet patches were tested against conductive fabric and copper sheet ones, while denim and felt textile substrates were competing. The comparative study between a large number of different graphene, all, and copper textile prototypes, which revealed the excellent suitability of graphene for wearable applications, is the main contribution of this paper. Additional novelty elements are the compact, flexible, and easy-to-fabricate structure of the proposed antennas, as well as the use of state-of-the-art conductive materials and commercially available fabrics and the extensive investigation of many prototypes in various bending conditions. Simulations and measurements of the proposed antennas are in very good agreement. All fabricated prototypes are characterized by flexibility, light weight, mechanical stability, resistance to shock, bending and vibrations, unhindered integration to clothes, low-cost implementation, simple, time-saving, and industry-compatible fabrication process, and low specific absorption rate (SAR) values (computed using rectangular and voxel models); the graphene prototypes are additionally resistant to corrosion, and the circular ones have very good performance under bending conditions. Many antenna prototypes demonstrate interesting characteristics, such as relatively wide bandwidth, adequate gain, firm radiation patterns, coverage of the ISM band even under bending, and very low SAR values. For example, the circular graphene patch (with 55.3 mm diameter attached upon a 165.9 × 165.9 mm) felt substrate CGsF1 prototype accomplishes 109 MHz measured bandwidth, 5.45 dBi gain, 56% efficiency, full coverage of the ISM band under bending, and SAR less than 0.003 W/Kg. View Full-Text
Keywords: patch antenna; curved antenna; textile antenna; wearable antenna; graphene sheet patch; conductive fabric patch patch antenna; curved antenna; textile antenna; wearable antenna; graphene sheet patch; conductive fabric patch
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kapetanakis, T.N.; Nikolopoulos, C.D.; Petridis, K.; Vardiambasis, I.O. Wearable Textile Antenna with a Graphene Sheet or Conductive Fabric Patch for the 2.45 GHz Band. Electronics 2021, 10, 2571. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212571

AMA Style

Kapetanakis TN, Nikolopoulos CD, Petridis K, Vardiambasis IO. Wearable Textile Antenna with a Graphene Sheet or Conductive Fabric Patch for the 2.45 GHz Band. Electronics. 2021; 10(21):2571. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kapetanakis, Theodoros N., Christos D. Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos Petridis, and Ioannis O. Vardiambasis. 2021. "Wearable Textile Antenna with a Graphene Sheet or Conductive Fabric Patch for the 2.45 GHz Band" Electronics 10, no. 21: 2571. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212571

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop