- Economic growth and creation of new jobs
- Science and technology development
- Environmental improvement
- Energy supply for isolated power systems
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Research Design
- Data regarding the potential of implementing clean and renewable energy sources (solar, wind, hydro and nuclear) in the Krasnoyarsk Region (sources of information are described in further sections)
- Demographic and industrialization data collected from open sources (official statistics)
- Data regarding emissions (carbon dioxide and sulfur oxide) was collected from open sources (official statistics)
2.2. The energy Sector of Krasnoyarsk Region
2.3. Socioeconomic Data
2.4. Mapping of Solar and Wind Power Potential
2.5. Mapping of Hydropower Potential
- Currently functioning hydro power stations: (1) Krasnoyarskaya; (2) Boguchanskaya; (3) Kureiskaya; (4) Mainskaya; (5) Enashiminskaya; (6) Ust-Khantaiskaya; (7) Sayano–Shushenskaya;
- Potential hydro power stations: (1) Motyginskaya; (2) Evenkiyskaya (or Turukhanskaya); (3) Nizhne-Kureiskaya;
- Municipal entities with the potential for the development of micro hydro power stations: (1) Motyginskiy; (2) Kuraginskiy; (3) Boguchanskiy; (4) Nazarovskiy; (5) Bolʹshemurtinskiy; (6) Karatuzskiy; (7) Abanskiy; (8) Tiukhtetskiy; (9) Novoselovskiy; (10) Sayanskiy; (11) Bolʹsheuluĭskiy; (12) Sukhobuzimskiy.
2.6. Mapping of Nuclear Power Potential
- X-axis—potential of a source (solar: average annual irradiance (kW/m2); wind: average annual wind speed (m/s); small-scale hydro potential (MW))
- Solar power has the highest potential to be implemented in the majority of thinly populated municipal entities of the Krasnoyarsk Region as a primary source of energy;
- Wind power has a potential to be implemented mostly as a supplemental source of energy in industrialized municipal entities;
- Nuclear power development may be considered in densely populated and industrialized municipal entities (in case if there would be no conflict with hydro);
- There are four municipal entities (Sukhobuzimskiy, Novoselovskiy, Uiarskiy and Tiukhtetskiy), where all three purely renewable (solar, wind and micro hydro) sources of energy may be implemented (upon the condition of no conflict among them);
Conflicts of Interest
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|Geographical coordinates||64.2480° N, 95.1104° E|
Krasnoyarsk Region (lake Vivi) is a geographical center of Russia
|The most northerly point||Cape Cheluskin (77.43° N, 104.18° E)|
|The most southerly point||Border of Tyva Republic—located in mountains, no locality bound (51.46° N, 92.4° E)|
|Climate type||3 climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, temperate|
Continental with extreme temperature fluctuations throughout the year
|Average annual rainfall (mm)||465|
|Annual temperature||Average = + 1.2 °C|
Average min = – 16.0 °C (January)
Average max = + 18.7 °C (July)
|Population||Overall population = 2.9 mm|
Population density = 1.21 people/km2
Urbanization = 77%
|Installed capacity (MW)||Сoal-fired power generation = 8089 MW|
Hydro power stations = 10,038
|Municipal Entity||Population Density|
|Level of Industrialization|
|Municipal Entity||Population Density|
|Level of Industrialization|
|Bolʹshemurtinskiy||2.672||5317.8||Taimyrskiy municipal region||0.037||76734.7|
|Manskiy||2.665||93.7||Evenkiiskiy municipal region||0.020||19544.9|
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