Next Article in Journal
Solutions to Marine Pollution in Canary Islands’ ports: Alternatives and Optimization of Energy Management
Previous Article in Journal
Future of Coastal Lagoons in Arid Zones under Climate Change and Anthropogenic Pressure. A Case Study from San Jose Lagoon, Mexico
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Resources 2019, 8(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8020058

Historical Penetration Patterns of Automobile Electronic Control Systems and Implications for Critical Raw Materials Recycling

1
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
2
Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology–NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
  |  
PDF [4081 KB, uploaded 31 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Car electronics form a large but poorly utilized source for secondary critical raw materials (CRMs). To capitalize on this potential, it is necessary to understand the mechanism in which car electronics enter and exit the vehicle fleet over time. We analyze the historical penetration of selected car electronic control systems (ECS) in 65,475 car models sold in the past 14 years by means of statistical learning. We find that the historical penetration of ECS tends to follow S-shaped curves, however with substantial variations in penetration speed and saturation level. Although electronic functions are increasing rapidly, comfort-related ECS tend to remain below 40% penetration even after 14 years on the market. In contrast, safety regulations lead to rapid ECS penetration approaching 100%, while environmental emission regulations seem to indirectly push related ECS to a medium penetration level (e.g., growing to 60% after six years). The trend towards integration of individual ECS poses long-term challenges for car electronics dismantling and recycling. Monitoring the ECS embedded in new cars, such as carried out in this study, can inform timely updates for such strategies. The results also provide a framework for developing scenarios to identify related future CRM stocks and flows. View Full-Text
Keywords: car electronics; technological diffusion; critical raw materials; urban mine; machine learning; statistical learning car electronics; technological diffusion; critical raw materials; urban mine; machine learning; statistical learning
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Restrepo, E.; Løvik, A.N.; Widmer, R.; Wäger, P.; Müller, D.B. Historical Penetration Patterns of Automobile Electronic Control Systems and Implications for Critical Raw Materials Recycling. Resources 2019, 8, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Resources EISSN 2079-9276 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top