Potential of Renewable Energy Resources with an Emphasis on Solar Power in Iraq: An Outlook
2. Principles of Concentrating Solar Power Plants
3. Comparison among CSP Technologies
4. Potential of Solar Energy in Iraq
5. Overview of Iraq’s Climate
6. Factors for Deploying CSP Technology in Iraq
- High direct normal irradiation,
- Nearby water sources,
- Geographic conditions (land area requirement), and
- Available transmission.
7. Overview of Energy Profile Resources in Iraq
7.1. The Electrical Power Scenario in Iraq
7.2. Energy Production versus Energy Consumption in Iraq
7.3. Electrical Power Supply Scenarios and Outlook in Iraq
8. A Scenario of Solar Energy in Iraq
8.1. Current Solar Energy Activities in Iraq
8.2. The Proposed Concentrating Solar Power Plants in Iraq
8.2.1. An Integrated Solar–Thermal Plant
8.2.2. A Stand-Alone Concentrating Solar Power Plant
8.3. Analysis of Economic Feasibility Compared to Other Solar Technologies
9. A Comparison of Various Renewable Energies in Iraq for Power Generation
9.1. Hydroelectric Power
9.2. Wind Power Scenario
9.3. Biomass Energy Scenario
10. Restrictions and Barriers to Adopting Renewable Energy in Iraq
- Financial and economic constraints: These barriers focus on the high capital cost of renewable energy projects, with the failure of (or lack of) funding mechanisms, as well as on the mistaken belief that investments in projects represent a financial risk despite preserving the environment. Some banks and funding sources may not encourage loans and investments in emerging areas compared with projects involving conventional energy and support; hence, investments in renewable energy may not have the same kind of value, and they may not be economically attractive (cost–benefit analysis) compared to other investment opportunities.
- Institutional and structural obstacles: The production and use of advanced technologies for energy production (e.g., wind power, biofuels, and solar energy) require the concerted efforts of many partners, including manufacturers and user companies; the legislative, executive, and relevant authorities (including the Ministries of Electricity, Energy, Transport, Environment, and Finance (for customs and taxes); scientific researchers; and the specifications and standards organizations. Thus, specifying roles and implementation plans is important, as well as the development of an integrated management system for coordination among parties to achieve energy production from renewable sources.
- Limited policies, attractive private investments, and the lack of government resources allocated to them.
- Poor policies that aim to form partnerships under the renewable energy application field.
- Limited institutional capabilities to develop renewable energy systems, and the difficulty in coordinating among them.
- A lack of public awareness regarding the available capabilities and the renewable energy systems that are used technically and economically.
- Difficulty in applying for a government funding system for renewable energy.
- Limited regional cooperation and coordination in the field of renewable energy projects and funding, as well as a dependence on foreign funding programs.
- The Iraqi market has limited experience and a lack of local expertise in the field of renewable energy resources in general, and for solar energy in particular.
- Accredited testing laboratories are insufficient, in terms of number and capability.
- The Iraqi government has enacted inadequate legislative laws that encourage the production and installation of monitoring devices used in solar energy systems.
- Prices for the production of electricity using common fossil fuels, such as oil and gas, are economical because of the price of energy-related products.
11. Initiatives and Support of the Iraqi Government
- Establish open markets and competitions that allow diverse participation, to ensure the sustainability of renewables adoption.
- Perform market functions efficiently, to ensure the diversity of resources.
- Transparency in exchanging energy information among different entities inside and outside the country.
- Provide the financial resources necessary for local investments in energy projects.
- Issuing strategies, as well as national and regional policies, that ensure the commitment of companies toward power transmission and distribution, by purchasing power that is generated from renewable energy resources, and by introducing regulations that can accommodate an agreed-upon percentage of renewable energy.
- Urban planning projects and programs shall include the allocation of lands that are required to establish power generation projects by using renewable energy resources.
- Creation of awareness among the public, particularly about the financial benefits of solar energy, the legal requirements, and the environmental advantages.
- Provision of information related to the implementation of solar energy technology, and technical details regarding building capacity, and support of scientific research into renewable energies.
- Implementation of supportive policies, such as effective laws that can impose pricing and provide practical support to those who implement renewable energy technologies.
- Offer support to reduce the proportion of electricity that is produced by using fossil fuels, via the technological establishment of solar energy. Furthermore, an advancement of the solar energy market with an attractive price for users and suppliers of renewable energy sources is necessary.
- Establish dedicated facilities that produce solar power and renewable energy sources, as well as cut taxes and customs duties on equipment that are related to renewable energy credit loans or grants.
- In a privatized market, each supplier has a defined percentage of power from renewable sources. A trading system allows for renewable energy “certificates” to be bought and sold, and thus, suppliers can fulfill their obligations.
- The plans and implementation of renewable energy projects by the Iraqi Ministry of Energy should be supported, to achieve the main goal of increasing renewable energy-based electricity production by approximately 9.4% in 2030, which will also affect CO2 emission.
- Encourage private sector investment by introducing special regulations to motivate investment in this area, such as the law of feed-in tariff, and the net metering of energy produced from different renewable resources.
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|CSPPs||Active||Capacity (MWe)||Under Construction||Capacity (MWe)||Planned for Future||Capacity (MWe)|
|Type of CSPP||Solar Power Tower||Parabolic Trough||Fresnel Reflectors||Solar Dish System|
|Plant capacity (MW)||10–150||10–200||10–200||0.01–1.5|
|Max efficiency (%)||22||24||20||30|
|Specific power (W/)||300||300||300||200|
|Demonstrated annual solar efficiency (%)||8–10||10–15||9–11||16–18|
|Land use (m2/MW ha)||8–12||6–8||4–6||8–12|
|Basic plant cost ($/W)||3.62||3.22||3.0||2.65|
|Capital cost ($/W)||2.4–3.62||2.9–3.22||2.8–3.0||2.65–2.9|
|Location||Country||Solar Irradiation on Horizontal Plane|
|Solar Irradiation on Vertical Plane|
|Solar Irradiation on|
|Technology||Water Requirement (L/MWh)||Remark|
|Parabolic trough||3000–3500||Wet cooling|
|Power tower||2240–2800||Wet cooling|
|Fresnel reflectors||2900–3500||Wet cooling|
|Area for Plant (ha)||Possible No. CPS Plant||Installed Power|
|Central Iraq (Babylon, Diyala, and Baghdad)||2100–2200||318||28||1400|
|South Iraq, (Missan, Thi-Qar, and Basrah)||2100–2200||203||18||900|
|Governorate of Al-Anbar||2200–2300||504||44||2900|
|Consumption of Power in Iraq (toe) *|
|Consumption of petroleum products||1,410,387||1,582,761||2,086,323||2,335,098|
|Natural gas consumption||1,737,467||1,915,174||2,423,362||3,111,405|
|Production of Electric Power in Iraq (GWh)|
|Production of electrical energy from steam stations||15,151.6||13,258.4||16,234.2||20,838.5|
|Production of electrical energy from gas stations||20,941.0||22,892.0||28,838.0||37,049.5|
|Production of electrical energy from the diesel stations||1307.4||5171.7||8593.1||6949.1|
|Production of electrical energy from hydroelectric power plants||3396.7||4392.2||4756.8||2930.8|
|No||Location||Fuel/Source of Supply||No of Units||Capacity MW/Unit|
|1||Shat Al Arab||Fuel oil/Al-Basra Refinery||6||125|
|2||Al-Khairat||Fuel oil/Al-Basra Refinery||6||125|
|3||Al-Anbar||Fuel oil/Carbala Refinery||4||125|
|4||Al-Naseriya||Fuel oil/Al-Naseriya Refinery||4||125|
|5||Al-Doura/ Location 3||Fuel oil/Al-Doura Refinery||6||125|
|6||Al-Doura/ Location 2||Fuel oil/Al-Doura Refinery||4||125|
|7||Nineveh||Fuel oil/Al-Kasak Refinery||6||125|
|8||Al-Dewaneia||Two units of gas and two unit of oil||4||125|
|9||AL-Qudus||Fuel oil/Gas at future||2||125|
|10||Al-Amara||Fuel oil/Al- Amara Refinery||2||125|
|12||Al-Samawa||Fuel oil/ Al-Samawa Refinery||4||125|
|13||Al-Mansouriya||Gas/ Al-Mansoriya field||2||125|
|14||Al-Najaf||Two units of gas and two units of fuel oil||4||125|
|1||Al-Garaf station||Thee-Qar||Fuel oil/NG||125 MW|
|2||Al-Garaf steam station||Thee-Qar||Natural gas||300 MW|
|3||Al-Khairat steam station||Karbala||Fuel oil/NG||300 MW|
|4||The North steam station||Al-Mousel||Fuel oil/NG||300 MW|
|5||The North steam station||Al-Anbar||Crude oil/Fuel oil/NG||300 MW|
|6||Shat Al-Arab steam station||Al-Basra||Fuel oil/NG||300 MW|
|Average direct radiation kWh/m2||1792||1704||1789|
|Operation & Maintenance Cost|
(US cent /kWh)
|CSP Technology, with no storage,|
|CSP technology, with storage,|
|Fixed PV system|
|Stand-alone PV system 0.6 kW|
|Water Heating (domestic)||0.14|
|Type||Plant||No of Units||Installed|
|at 10 m|
|at 50 m|
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Al-Kayiem, H.H.; Mohammad, S.T. Potential of Renewable Energy Resources with an Emphasis on Solar Power in Iraq: An Outlook. Resources 2019, 8, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010042
Al-Kayiem HH, Mohammad ST. Potential of Renewable Energy Resources with an Emphasis on Solar Power in Iraq: An Outlook. Resources. 2019; 8(1):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010042Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Kayiem, Hussain H., and Sanan T. Mohammad. 2019. "Potential of Renewable Energy Resources with an Emphasis on Solar Power in Iraq: An Outlook" Resources 8, no. 1: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010042