Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Ecological Footprint of Ecotourism Packages: A Methodological Proposition
Next Article in Special Issue
The Resource Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) and Its Challenges
Previous Article in Journal
Implementing Climate-Compatible Development in the Context of Power: Lessons for Encouraging Procedural Justice through Community-Based Projects
Previous Article in Special Issue
Properties and Beneficial Uses of (Bio)Chars, with Special Attention to Products from Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Resources 2018, 7(2), 37;

The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, 27100 PAVIA, Italy
Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Mining for Resource Supply)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2041 KB, uploaded 2 June 2018]   |  


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for every organism on the Earth, yet it is also a potential environmental pollutant, which may cause eutrophication of water bodies. Wastewater treatment plants worldwide are struggling to eliminate phosphorus from effluents, at great cost, yet current research suggests that the world may deplete the more available phosphorus reserves by around 2300. This, in addition to environmental concerns, evokes the need for new phosphorus recovery techniques to be developed, to meet future generations needs for renewable phosphorus supply. Many studies have been, and are, carried out on phosphorus recovery from wastewater and its sludge, due to their high phosphorus content. Chemical precipitation is the main process for achieving a phosphorus-containing mineral suitable for reuse as a fertilizer, such as struvite. This paper reviews the current status and future trends of phosphorus production and consumption, and summarizes current recovery technologies, discussing their possible integration into wastewater treatment processes, according to a more sustainable water-energy-nutrient nexus. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; scarcity; nitrogen; wastewater; eutrophication; recovery phosphorus; scarcity; nitrogen; wastewater; eutrophication; recovery

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Daneshgar, S.; Callegari, A.; Capodaglio, A.G.; Vaccari, D. The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review. Resources 2018, 7, 37.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Resources EISSN 2079-9276 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top