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Open AccessReview

The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review

1
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, 27100 PAVIA, Italy
2
Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Resources 2018, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020037
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Mining for Resource Supply)
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for every organism on the Earth, yet it is also a potential environmental pollutant, which may cause eutrophication of water bodies. Wastewater treatment plants worldwide are struggling to eliminate phosphorus from effluents, at great cost, yet current research suggests that the world may deplete the more available phosphorus reserves by around 2300. This, in addition to environmental concerns, evokes the need for new phosphorus recovery techniques to be developed, to meet future generations needs for renewable phosphorus supply. Many studies have been, and are, carried out on phosphorus recovery from wastewater and its sludge, due to their high phosphorus content. Chemical precipitation is the main process for achieving a phosphorus-containing mineral suitable for reuse as a fertilizer, such as struvite. This paper reviews the current status and future trends of phosphorus production and consumption, and summarizes current recovery technologies, discussing their possible integration into wastewater treatment processes, according to a more sustainable water-energy-nutrient nexus. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; scarcity; nitrogen; wastewater; eutrophication; recovery phosphorus; scarcity; nitrogen; wastewater; eutrophication; recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daneshgar, S.; Callegari, A.; Capodaglio, A.G.; Vaccari, D. The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review. Resources 2018, 7, 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020037

AMA Style

Daneshgar S, Callegari A, Capodaglio AG, Vaccari D. The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review. Resources. 2018; 7(2):37. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daneshgar, Saba; Callegari, Arianna; Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Vaccari, David. 2018. "The Potential Phosphorus Crisis: Resource Conservation and Possible Escape Technologies: A Review" Resources 7, no. 2: 37. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020037

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