Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan) and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia)
1.1. IWRM and PES
1.2. Research Aim and Research Questions
- Who are the key stakeholders relevant to the water resource governance in the Sagami River Basin and the Muda River Basin?
- Which factors would support the successful implementation of the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) in the river basin?
- What are the PES lessons learned from the Sagami River Basin and how can they be applied to improve the management of the Muda River Basin in Malaysia?
2. Study Area
2.1. Study Area 1: Sagami River Basin
2.2. Study Area 2: Muda River Basin
2.3. Features of the Selected Basins
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Selection of Target Group
3.2. Data Collection
3.3. Data Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
- a legal and institutional framework to ensure sustainable and predictable funding from beneficiaries (Yokohama City in Kanagawa) to Doshi-mura in Kanagawa for managing the forests at the upstream of Sagami river basin;
- institutional and technical capacity to implement proper forest management;
- benefit sharing with local communities to support their livelihoods and ensure their contribution to forest management;
- the promotion of awareness-raising among beneficiaries (citizens of Kanagawa, especially citizens of Yokohama, as 80% of the city comes from headwater that is located at the forest of Doshi-mura) of the environmental services provided by Doshi-mura forest in Yamanashi.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Concerned Organization||Tasks||Sub-Section||Main Laws|
|Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare||Water supply|
|Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries|
|Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry|
|Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MLIT)|
|Ministry of Environment|
|Basin||Riparian Prefectures/States||Status of Countries||Climate||Impacts of Climate Changes (I) and Adaptations (A)|
|Sagami||Yamanashi and Kanagawa, Japan||Developed||Temperate, warm||I: Floods|
A: Sagami river basin had a transboundary agreement and appointed river basin commission with intervention from strong top-down management from central government. There is a collaboration between the prefectures, disaster reduction strategy using software and hardware measures, and conversion of environment-focused river management and maintenance
|Muda||Kedah and Penang, Malaysia||Developing||Tropical, equatorial||I: Floods, dry season (from early March till the end of June 2016, Malaysia experienced dry season resulting from El-Nino and equinox phenomena, leading to a reduction of water in dams, rivers, and other water resources)|
A: Basin has treaty agreement, which is rather weak in terms of environmental protection at the upper stream. There are joint studies and impact assessments, but these are weakened by fragmented functions, as local agencies manage their own territories
|Sectors||Sagami River Basin||Muda River Basin|
|Water supply agencies|
|1. Basin Description|
|2. River governance|
|3. Limitations to implementation IWRM|
|Willingness to participate in PES|
|Yamanashi (Y)-Kanagawa (Ka), Japan||Sagami||Water||Not Applicable||Y & Ka: PES scheme in terms of exchange of assistance in managing in watershed Doshi-mura to overcome inadequacy of IWRM framework|
|Kedah(K)-Penang (P), Malaysia||Muda||Water||K: Lack of financial resources|
P: Degree of regulatory responsibilities
K & P: Conflicts of Interests
|Descriptions||Sagami River Basin||Muda River Basin|
|Features of Basin|
|River basin council|
|Water governance model|
|Payments for ecosystems services (PES)|
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Sim, L.M.; Onishi, A.; Gervais, O.; Chan, N.W. Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan) and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia). Resources 2018, 7, 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020033
Sim LM, Onishi A, Gervais O, Chan NW. Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan) and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia). Resources. 2018; 7(2):33. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020033Chicago/Turabian Style
Sim, Lay Mei, Akio Onishi, Olivier Gervais, and Ngai Weng Chan. 2018. "Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan) and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia)" Resources 7, no. 2: 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7020033