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A Review of the Application of Ultrasound in Bioleaching and Insights from Sonication in (Bio)Chemical Processes

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585, Singapore
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Resources 2018, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7010003
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
Chemical and biological leaching is practiced on a commercial scale for the mining of metals from ores. Although bioleaching is an environmentally-friendly alternative to chemical leaching, one of the principal shortcomings is the slow rate of leaching which needs to be addressed. The application of ultrasound in bioleaching, termed sonobioleaching, is a technique which has been reported to increase the rate and extent of metal extraction. This article reviews efforts made in the field of sonobioleaching. Since bioleaching is effectively a biological and chemical process, the effects of sonication on chemical leaching/reactions and biological processes are also reviewed. Although sonication increases metal extraction by increasing the metabolite production and enhanced mixing at a micro scale, research is limited in terms of the microorganisms explored. This paper highlights some shortcomings and limitations of existing techniques, and proposes directions for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioleaching; sonobioleaching; ultrasound; sonochemical leaching; two-step bioleaching; biological processes bioleaching; sonobioleaching; ultrasound; sonochemical leaching; two-step bioleaching; biological processes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vyas, S.; Ting, Y.-P. A Review of the Application of Ultrasound in Bioleaching and Insights from Sonication in (Bio)Chemical Processes. Resources 2018, 7, 3.

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