Next Article in Journal
Recycling in Brasil: Paper and Plastic Supply Chain
Next Article in Special Issue
Improving the Sustainability of Farming Practices through the Use of a Symbiotic Approach for Anaerobic Digestion and Digestate Processing
Previous Article in Journal
Seasonal Migration and Settlement around Lake Chad: Strategies for Control of Resources in an Increasingly Drying Lake
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Resources 2017, 6(3), 42;

Using Social, Economic and Land-Use Indices to Build a Local Sustainability Index in a Mining Region of the Sierra Tarahumara, Mexico

Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Periferico Francisco R. Almada Km 1, Chihuahua 31110, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Indicators for Environment Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3303 KB, uploaded 28 August 2017]   |  


Ore mining has served as a predictor of economic wellbeing since it brought development to countries. However, these benefits do not always extend to all localities that comprised the center of this industry. This paper examined the contribution of mining to local communities. An index of local sustainability was constructed based on economic, social, and land-use data from twelve localities where mining and forestry are their major economic activities. Land-use variables were obtained from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM 5) images for 2000, and Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI8) for 2014, while the socio-economic variables were collected in twelve localities with an 85-question survey. A sustainability index was developed for each group of variables—economic (ESI), social (SSI) and land-use sustainability index (LUSI)—to further build a local sustainability index (LSI). Three localities showed the highest ESI (0.61, 0.53 and 0.43) and SSI (0.90, 0.79 and 0.78), while two localities had the lowest values in the ESI and SSI. In contrast, the highest value of LUSI was found in two other different localities and in one with lower SSI. Income from mining activities is positively associated with the ESI and SSI, but there was no evidence of linear association with the LUSI. A local index of sustainability provides useful information for planning and development strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chihuahua; sustainability; rural development Chihuahua; sustainability; rural development

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pinedo-Álvarez, C.; Chacón-Chumacero, K.O.; Pinedo-Álvarez, A.; Martínez-Salvador, M.; Rentería-Villalobos, M.; Santellano-Estrada, E.; Rodríguez-Piñeros, S. Using Social, Economic and Land-Use Indices to Build a Local Sustainability Index in a Mining Region of the Sierra Tarahumara, Mexico. Resources 2017, 6, 42.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Resources EISSN 2079-9276 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top