An Analysis of Regulatory Strategies for Recycling and Re-Use of Metals in Australia
2. Changing Policy Contexts
“That is restorative or regenerative by intention and design. It replaces the “end-of-life” concept with restoration, shifts towards the use of renewable energy, eliminates the use of toxic chemicals, which impair reuse, and aims for the elimination of waste through the superior design of materials, products, systems, and, within this, business models.”
- Influence the economics of any part of the recycling chain; with particular consideration of policies affecting the cost of recycling activities and security of supply, including the relative cost of alternatives, taxation, subsidies, trade restrictions, labour regulation and energy costs;
- Provide the incentives and means for stakeholders to exchange information and co-operate; with particular focus upon Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR);
- Enhance the role of government as a stakeholder in the chain; with particular emphasis on waste collection and processing infrastructure provided by local government;
- Coordinate interactions between relevant policy makers; with particular focus upon better cooperation between relevant government agencies to create a more holistic approach (, Chapter 7).
3. The Purpose and Approaches of Regulation
3.1. What Is Regulation
3.2. Trends in Environmental Regulation
3.2.1. Command and Control Approaches
3.2.2. Responsive Regulation
3.2.3. Outcome Based Regulation
3.2.4. Management Based Regulation
3.2.5. Reflexive Regulation
- exploration and extraction;
- processing and manufacturing; and
- disposal and re-use.
4. The Regulatory Framework for the Life-Cycle of Minerals and Metals in Australia
4.1. Regulation during Exploration and Extraction
“The NPI should operate principally as an instrument of environmental management and performance assessment, or to consider it principally as a more general tool for raising public and industry awareness of emissions to our environment and the need for cleaner production and waste minimisation. The former requires a higher level of funding to generate high quality data and more extensive data sets than the latter, but its effectiveness increases. It appears to be the direction in which international systems are headed.”
- advance understanding of the properties of metals and minerals and their life-cycle effects on human health and the environment;
- conduct or support research and innovation that promotes the use of products and technologies that are safe and efficient in their use of energy, natural resources and other materials;
- develop and promote the concept of integrated materials management throughout the metals and minerals value chain;
- provide regulators and other stakeholders with scientifically sound data and analysis regarding our products and operations as a basis for regulatory decisions;
- support the development of scientifically sound policies, regulations, product standards and material choice decisions that encourage the safe use of mineral and metal products.”
4.2. Regulation during Processing and Manufacture Phase
- reasonable access to collection services in metropolitan, inner regional, outer regional and remote areas must be provided (free of charge to households);
- certain recycling targets for each product in the class must be met in each year; and
- a material recovery target must be met in each year (from 1 July 2014) (, Regulations 3.01–3.03).
4.3. Regulation of Disposal and Re-Use of Metals
5. Observations and Analysis
|(1) Exploration and Extraction Phase|
|Regulatory Scheme (legislative instruments)||Regulatory Strategy Applied|
|State Government (Victoria)|
|(2) Processing and Manufacturing Phase|
|State Government (Victoria)|
|(3) Disposal and Re-Use Phase|
|State Government (Victoria)|
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Gumley, W. An Analysis of Regulatory Strategies for Recycling and Re-Use of Metals in Australia. Resources 2014, 3, 395-415. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources3020395
Gumley W. An Analysis of Regulatory Strategies for Recycling and Re-Use of Metals in Australia. Resources. 2014; 3(2):395-415. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources3020395Chicago/Turabian Style
Gumley, Wayne. 2014. "An Analysis of Regulatory Strategies for Recycling and Re-Use of Metals in Australia" Resources 3, no. 2: 395-415. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources3020395