Valuing Ecosystem Services for Coastal Wetland Protection and Restoration: Progress and Challenges
2. Valuing Coastal Wetland Ecosystem Goods and Services
|Ecosystem structure and function||Ecosystem goods and services||Valuation examples (80 estimates total)|
|Attenuates and/or dissipates waves, buffers wind||Coastal protection from storms||12 estimates|
|Provides sediment stabilization and soil retention||Erosion control||4 estimates|
|Water flow regulation and control||Flood protection||2 estimates|
|Provides nutrient and pollution uptake, as well as retention, particle deposition, and clean water||Water purification and supply||7 estimates|
|Generates biogeochemical activity, sedimentation, biological productivity||Carbon sequestration||4 estimates|
|Climate regulation and stabilization||Maintenance of temperature, precipitation||0 estimates|
|Generates biological productivity and diversity||Raw materials and food||7 estimates|
|Provides suitable reproductive habitat and nursery grounds, sheltered living space||Maintains fishing, hunting and foraging activities||20 estimates|
|Provides unique and aesthetic landscape, suitable habitat for diverse fauna and flora||Tourism, recreation, education, and research||21 estimates|
|Provides unique and aesthetic landscape of cultural, historic or spiritual meaning||Culture, spiritual and religious benefits, existence and bequest values||3 estimates|
3. Case Studies
3.1. Quantifying Ecosystem Services and the 2012 Master Plan for Coastal Louisiana
|Ecosystem service||Quantification approach|
|Alligator||Estimated habitat suitability index based on how different combinations of water, vegetation and land characteristics support alligator habitat|
|Crawfish (wild caught)||Estimated habitat suitability index based on how different combinations of water, vegetation and land characteristics support crawfish habitat|
|Oysters||Changes in oyster habitat were predicted through a habitat suitability model that accounted for land change, water, and bottom characteristics.|
|Shrimp (white and brown)||Habitat suitability models were developed for juvenile brown shrimp and juvenile white shrimp to predict changes in habitat based on water and vegetation characteristics.|
|Saltwater fisheries||A habitat suitability model for juvenile speckled trout was used to reflect changes to saltwater fisheries, based on water and vegetation characteristics.|
|Freshwater fisheries||A habitat suitability model for largemouth bass was developed, which incorporated changes in water and submerged aquatic vegetation characteristics.|
|Waterfowl||A combination of habitat suitability models for mottled duck, gadwall, and green winged teal was used to estimate waterfowl habitat changes based on predicted changes to water, vegetation and land characteristics.|
|Other coastal wildlife||Habitat suitability models for muskrat, river otter, and roseate spoonbill were developed based on water, vegetation, and land characteristics.|
|Nature-based tourism||A model was developed to estimate the potential for nature-based tourism, which measured human access to high quality habitats for wildlife near coastal tourism centers, such as barrier islands and wildlife management areas. The species used to describe this service included: alligator, roseate spoonbill, river otter, muskrat, neotropical migrants, and waterfowl.|
|Support for agriculture and aquaculture||A model was developed that evaluated salinity characteristics and frequency of flooding in upland areas. This index includes lands that are in production for rice, sugarcane, cattle, farmed crawfish, and other agricultural and aquaculture activities.|
|Nutrient uptake||A model was developed to predict effects on nitrogen removal in open water, sediment, and wetlands.|
|Carbon sequestration||A wetland morphology model was used to estimate effects on carbon storage potential, which allows for variation in carbon storage with the type of wetland, the acreage, and the annual vertical accretion of soil.|
|Freshwater availability||A suitability model was developed to evaluate salinities in close proximity to strategic assets or populated areas.|
|Storm surge/wave attenuation||Estimated the effects of storm surge and waves on coastal communities, based on the location and amount of land in proximity to population centers, type of vegetation, and land elevation|
3.2. Valuing Storm Protection by Marsh in Southeast Louisiana
|Estimated wetland impacts on attenuating maximum storm surge levels (S)||Estimated marginal values of wetlands in terms of avoiding damages to residential property|
|Change in WL and WR||Change in storm surge||Change in WL and WR||Marginal value|
|1% change in WL per segment||−8.4% to −11.2%||0.1 increase in WL per m||$99.29 to $132.87|
|1% change in WR per segment||−15.4% to −28.1%||0.001 increase in WR per m||$23.72 to $43.24|
|9.4 to 12.6 km change in WL||−1 m||0.1 increase in WL per segment||$591,886 to $792,082|
|0.001 increase in WR per segment||$141,399 to $257,762|
3.3. Oil Spills and the NRDA Approach to Wetland Compensation
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Barbier, E.B. Valuing Ecosystem Services for Coastal Wetland Protection and Restoration: Progress and Challenges. Resources 2013, 2, 213-230. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources2030213
Barbier EB. Valuing Ecosystem Services for Coastal Wetland Protection and Restoration: Progress and Challenges. Resources. 2013; 2(3):213-230. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources2030213Chicago/Turabian Style
Barbier, Edward B. 2013. "Valuing Ecosystem Services for Coastal Wetland Protection and Restoration: Progress and Challenges" Resources 2, no. 3: 213-230. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources2030213