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Open AccessArticle

What Are Ideological Systems?

Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Alicante, 03690 Alacant, Spain
Institute of Education, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ockie Bosch
Systems 2017, 5(1), 21;
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Social Systems: Theory And Practice)
PDF [545 KB, uploaded 8 March 2017]


Ideology is a systemic property of cognition central to the transmission and actualization of beliefs. Ideologies take many forms including religious, philosophical, popular and scientific. They play a central role in both personal identity and in the way society holds itself together. Therefore, it is important to understand how to model identities. The article introduces ideologies as a function of cognition that have been described by political scientists and critical theorists. There follows a typology of ideologies that shows their increasing complexity as societies develop. These considerations lead to the identification of key elements and variables in an ideology that can be expressed mathematically together with some of their systemic relations. These variables may be used to estimate the validation of ideologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: belief system; commitment; ideology; typology; social systems; superstructure; validation belief system; commitment; ideology; typology; social systems; superstructure; validation

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Nescolarde-Selva, J.A.; Usó-Doménech, J.-L.; Gash, H. What Are Ideological Systems? Systems 2017, 5, 21.

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