Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment, and has noxious effects on plant growth and production. Cd-accumulating plants showed reduced growth and productivity. Therefore, remediation of this non-essential and toxic pollutant is a prerequisite. Plant-based phytoremediation methodology is considered as one a secure, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective approach for toxic metal remediation. Phytoremediating plants transport and accumulate Cd inside their roots, shoots, leaves, and vacuoles. Phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites through hyperaccumulator plants proves a ground-breaking and profitable choice to combat the contaminants. Moreover, the efficiency of Cd phytoremediation and Cd bioavailability can be improved by using plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Emerging modern molecular technologies have augmented our insight into the metabolic processes involved in Cd tolerance in regular cultivated crops and hyperaccumulator plants. Plants’ development via genetic engineering tools, like enhanced metal uptake, metal transport, Cd accumulation, and the overall Cd tolerance, unlocks new directions for phytoremediation. In this review, we outline the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms involved in Cd phytoremediation. Further, a focus on the potential of omics and genetic engineering strategies has been documented for the efficient remediation of a Cd-contaminated environment.
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