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Phytoremediation of Cadmium: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms

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Key Lab of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Wuhan 430062, China
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Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology (CABB), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah 6714115111, Iran
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Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (IESE), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
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Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(7), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9070177
Received: 16 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Science)
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic metals in the environment, and has noxious effects on plant growth and production. Cd-accumulating plants showed reduced growth and productivity. Therefore, remediation of this non-essential and toxic pollutant is a prerequisite. Plant-based phytoremediation methodology is considered as one a secure, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective approach for toxic metal remediation. Phytoremediating plants transport and accumulate Cd inside their roots, shoots, leaves, and vacuoles. Phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites through hyperaccumulator plants proves a ground-breaking and profitable choice to combat the contaminants. Moreover, the efficiency of Cd phytoremediation and Cd bioavailability can be improved by using plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Emerging modern molecular technologies have augmented our insight into the metabolic processes involved in Cd tolerance in regular cultivated crops and hyperaccumulator plants. Plants’ development via genetic engineering tools, like enhanced metal uptake, metal transport, Cd accumulation, and the overall Cd tolerance, unlocks new directions for phytoremediation. In this review, we outline the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms involved in Cd phytoremediation. Further, a focus on the potential of omics and genetic engineering strategies has been documented for the efficient remediation of a Cd-contaminated environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; phytoremediation; antioxidant defense system; genetic engineering; microbes; metallothionein; omics; phytochelatins heavy metals; phytoremediation; antioxidant defense system; genetic engineering; microbes; metallothionein; omics; phytochelatins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Raza, A.; Habib, M.; Kakavand, S.N.; Zahid, Z.; Zahra, N.; Sharif, R.; Hasanuzzaman, M. Phytoremediation of Cadmium: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms. Biology 2020, 9, 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9070177

AMA Style

Raza A, Habib M, Kakavand SN, Zahid Z, Zahra N, Sharif R, Hasanuzzaman M. Phytoremediation of Cadmium: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms. Biology. 2020; 9(7):177. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9070177

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raza, Ali, Madiha Habib, Shiva N. Kakavand, Zainab Zahid, Noreen Zahra, Rahat Sharif, and Mirza Hasanuzzaman. 2020. "Phytoremediation of Cadmium: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms" Biology 9, no. 7: 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9070177

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