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Open AccessArticle

Mechanisms and Drivers for the Establishment of Life Cycle Complexity in Myxozoan Parasites

1
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
3
Laboratorio de Ictioparasitología, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), FCEYN, UNMdP-CONICET, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina
4
Undergraduate Biology Research Program (UBRC), University of Arizona, 1200 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
5
Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biology 2020, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9010010
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 25 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Evolutionary Biology)
It is assumed that complex life cycles in cnidarian parasites belonging to the Myxozoa result from incorporation of vertebrates into simple life cycles exploiting aquatic invertebrates. However, nothing is known about the driving forces and implementation of this event, though it fostered massive diversification. We performed a comprehensive search for myxozoans in evolutionary ancient fishes (Chondrichthyes), and more than doubled existing 18S rDNA sequence data, discovering seven independent phylogenetic lineages. We performed cophylogenetic and character mapping methods in the largest monophyletic dataset and demonstrate that host and parasite phylogenies are strongly correlated, and that tectonic changes may explain phylogeographic clustering in recent skates and softnose skates, in the Atlantic. The most basal lineages of myxozoans inhabit the bile of chondrichthyans, an immunologically privileged site and protective niche, easily accessible from the gut via the bile duct. We hypothesize that feed-integration is a likely mechanism of host acquisition, an idea supported by feeding habits of chimaeras and ancient sharks and by multiple entries of different parasite lineages from invertebrates into the new host group. We provide exciting first insights into the early evolutionary history of ancient metazoan parasites in a host group that embodies more evolutionary distinctiveness than most other vertebrates. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chondrichthyes; myxozoa; cnidaria; co-phylogeny; co-diversification; phylogeography; migration; feed-integration Chondrichthyes; myxozoa; cnidaria; co-phylogeny; co-diversification; phylogeography; migration; feed-integration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lisnerová, M.; Fiala, I.; Cantatore, D.; Irigoitia, M.; Timi, J.; Pecková, H.; Bartošová-Sojková, P.; Sandoval, C.M.; Luer, C.; Morris, J.; Holzer, A.S. Mechanisms and Drivers for the Establishment of Life Cycle Complexity in Myxozoan Parasites. Biology 2020, 9, 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9010010

AMA Style

Lisnerová M, Fiala I, Cantatore D, Irigoitia M, Timi J, Pecková H, Bartošová-Sojková P, Sandoval CM, Luer C, Morris J, Holzer AS. Mechanisms and Drivers for the Establishment of Life Cycle Complexity in Myxozoan Parasites. Biology. 2020; 9(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lisnerová, Martina; Fiala, Ivan; Cantatore, Delfina; Irigoitia, Manuel; Timi, Juan; Pecková, Hana; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Sandoval, Christian M.; Luer, Carl; Morris, Jack; Holzer, Astrid S. 2020. "Mechanisms and Drivers for the Establishment of Life Cycle Complexity in Myxozoan Parasites" Biology 9, no. 1: 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9010010

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