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Open AccessArticle

Cryotolerance of Stallion Spermatozoa Relies on Aquaglyceroporins rather than Orthodox Aquaporins

1
Biotechnology of Animal and Human Reproduction (TechnoSperm), Unit of Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Institute of Food and Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain
2
Equine Reproduction Service, Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biology 2019, 8(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology8040085
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Zoology)
Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of ubiquitous water channels divided into orthodox AQPs, aquaglyceroporins (GLPs), and superAQPs, are present in stallion spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to elucidate the functional relevance of each group of AQPs during stallion sperm cryopreservation through the use of three different inhibitors: acetazolamide (AC), phloretin (PHL) and propanediol (PDO). Sperm quality and function parameters were evaluated in the presence or absence of each inhibitor in fresh and frozen–thawed samples. In the presence of AC, different parameters were altered (p < 0.05), but not in a concentration- or time-depending manner. PHL was found to decrease sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, and the percentages of spermatozoa with low membrane lipid disorder, high mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and high intracellular levels of calcium and superoxides (p < 0.05). Finally, the sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, the percentages of spermatozoa with low membrane lipid disorder, high MMP and high intracellular calcium levels were higher (p < 0.05) in PDO treatments than in the control. The sperm response to AC, PHL and PDO indicates that GLPs, rather than orthodox AQPs, play a crucial role during stallion sperm cryopreservation. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm quality was higher in PDO treatments than in the control, suggesting that this molecule is a potential permeable cryoprotectant. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetazolamide; aquaporins; phloretin; propanediol; sperm; stallion acetazolamide; aquaporins; phloretin; propanediol; sperm; stallion
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Delgado-Bermúdez, A.; Noto, F.; Bonilla-Correal, S.; Garcia-Bonavila, E.; Catalán, J.; Papas, M.; Bonet, S.; Miró, J.; Yeste, M. Cryotolerance of Stallion Spermatozoa Relies on Aquaglyceroporins rather than Orthodox Aquaporins. Biology 2019, 8, 85.

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