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Article

Side Effects of mRNA-Based and Viral Vector-Based COVID-19 Vaccines among German Healthcare Workers

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Czech National Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation (Cochrane Czech Republic, Czech EBHC: JBI Centre of Excellence, Masaryk University GRADE Centre), Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic, Palackého náměstí 4, 128 01 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Clinic for Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Kiel University, Arnold Heller Str. 3, Haus B, 24105 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Glückstraße 11, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University, Klinikstrasse 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution as first authorship.
Academic Editors: Mohamad Goldust, Robert A. Schwartz, Dedee Murrell and Torello Lotti
Biology 2021, 10(8), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080752
Received: 8 July 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 5 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19))
The main way to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic is mass vaccination of the public. However, the public’s vaccine hesitancy toward the available vaccines is a big challenge in the fighting against the coronavirus spreading. We aimed in this study to report for the first time the short-term side effects following mRNA-based (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) and viral vector-based (AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccines among German healthcare workers. A survey-based study was conducted through an online validated questionnaire. Overall, 88.1% of the German healthcare workers included in this study reported at least one side effect following the COVID-19 vaccination. The mRNA-based vaccines were associated with a higher prevalence of local side effects (e.g., injection site pain), while the viral vector-based vaccine was associated with a higher prevalence of systemic side effects (e.g., headache/fatigue). The vast majority (84.9%) of side effects resolved within 1–3 days after vaccination, which are promising results from a safety point of view for both types of vaccines. This study is one of the few studies that aims to enhance our emerging knowledge about the risk factors of COVID-19 vaccines side effects by inquiring and analyzing the self-reported side effects across various demographic and medical parameters.
Background: the increasing number of COVID-19 vaccines available to the public may trigger hesitancy or selectivity towards vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the post-vaccination side effects of the different vaccines approved in Germany; Methods: a cross-sectional survey-based study was carried out using an online questionnaire validated and tested for a priori reliability. The questionnaire inquired about demographic data, medical and COVID-19-related anamneses, and local, systemic, oral, and skin-related side effects following COVID-19 vaccination; Results: out of the 599 participating healthcare workers, 72.3% were females, and 79.1% received mRNA-based vaccines, while 20.9% received a viral vector-based vaccine. 88.1% of the participants reported at least one side effect. Injection site pain (75.6%) was the most common local side effect, and headache/fatigue (53.6%), muscle pain (33.2%), malaise (25%), chills (23%), and joint pain (21.2%) were the most common systemic side effects. The vast majority (84.9%) of side effects resolved within 1–3 days post-vaccination; Conclusions: the mRNA-based vaccines were associated with a higher prevalence of local side effects (78.3% vs. 70.4%; Sig. = 0.064), while the viral vector-based vaccine was associated with a higher prevalence of systemic side effects (87.2% vs. 61%; Sig. < 0.001). Females and the younger age group were associated with an increased risk of side effects either after mRNA-based or viral vector-based vaccines. The gender- and age-based differences warrant further rigorous investigation and standardized methodology. View Full-Text
Keywords: adverse effects; BTN162 vaccine; ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccine; cross-sectional studies; COVID-19 vaccines; drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Germany; health personnel; mRNA-1273 vaccine; prevalence adverse effects; BTN162 vaccine; ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccine; cross-sectional studies; COVID-19 vaccines; drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Germany; health personnel; mRNA-1273 vaccine; prevalence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klugar, M.; Riad, A.; Mekhemar, M.; Conrad, J.; Buchbender, M.; Howaldt, H.-P.; Attia, S. Side Effects of mRNA-Based and Viral Vector-Based COVID-19 Vaccines among German Healthcare Workers. Biology 2021, 10, 752. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080752

AMA Style

Klugar M, Riad A, Mekhemar M, Conrad J, Buchbender M, Howaldt H-P, Attia S. Side Effects of mRNA-Based and Viral Vector-Based COVID-19 Vaccines among German Healthcare Workers. Biology. 2021; 10(8):752. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080752

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klugar, Miloslav, Abanoub Riad, Mohamed Mekhemar, Jonas Conrad, Mayte Buchbender, Hans-Peter Howaldt, and Sameh Attia. 2021. "Side Effects of mRNA-Based and Viral Vector-Based COVID-19 Vaccines among German Healthcare Workers" Biology 10, no. 8: 752. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080752

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