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Review

Amyloids: The History of Toxicity and Functionality

1
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290 Moscow, Russia
2
A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katsuya Iuchi
Biology 2021, 10(5), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050394
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 26 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding, Aggregation, and Cell Death)
This review presents the beginning of the history of toxic properties of amyloids, especially on Aβ amyloids. We discuss anti-amyloid therapy and its problems and write about new views on amyloids that can play positive roles in different organisms including human.
Proteins can perform their specific function due to their molecular structure. Partial or complete unfolding of the polypeptide chain may lead to the misfolding and aggregation of proteins in turn, resulting in the formation of different structures such as amyloid aggregates. Amyloids are rigid protein aggregates with the cross-β structure, resistant to most solvents and proteases. Because of their resistance to proteolysis, amyloid aggregates formed in the organism accumulate in tissues, promoting the development of various diseases called amyloidosis, for instance Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). According to the main hypothesis, it is considered that the cause of AD is the formation and accumulation of amyloid plaques of Aβ. That is why Aβ-amyloid is the most studied representative of amyloids. Therefore, in this review, special attention is paid to the history of Aβ-amyloid toxicity. We note the main problems with anti-amyloid therapy and write about new views on amyloids that can play positive roles in the different organisms including humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein aggregation; amyloids; functional amyloids; amyloidosis; amyloidogenesis; Alzheimer’s disease protein aggregation; amyloids; functional amyloids; amyloidosis; amyloidogenesis; Alzheimer’s disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yakupova, E.I.; Bobyleva, L.G.; Shumeyko, S.A.; Vikhlyantsev, I.M.; Bobylev, A.G. Amyloids: The History of Toxicity and Functionality. Biology 2021, 10, 394. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050394

AMA Style

Yakupova EI, Bobyleva LG, Shumeyko SA, Vikhlyantsev IM, Bobylev AG. Amyloids: The History of Toxicity and Functionality. Biology. 2021; 10(5):394. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050394

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yakupova, Elmira I., Liya G. Bobyleva, Sergey A. Shumeyko, Ivan M. Vikhlyantsev, and Alexander G. Bobylev. 2021. "Amyloids: The History of Toxicity and Functionality" Biology 10, no. 5: 394. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10050394

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