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Open AccessArticle

Application of Photocatalytic Falling Film Reactor to Elucidate the Degradation Pathways of Pharmaceutical Diclofenac and Ibuprofen in Aqueous Solutions

1
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Qlyasan Street, Sulaimani City 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
2
Komar research Center (KRC), Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani City 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
3
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Quality, Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg), D-12489 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(8), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9080465
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Thin Films)
Diclofenac (DCF) and ibuprofen (IBP) are common pharmaceutical residues that have been detected in the aquatic system. Their presence in the aquatic environment has become an emerging contaminant problem, which has implications for public health. The degradation pathway and identification of transformation products of pharmaceutical residues are crucial to elucidate the environmental fate of photocatalytic decomposition of these pollutants in aqueous media. The degradation process might lead to creation of other possible emerging contaminates. In this study, the degradation of DCF and IBP in aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, coated TiO2 on a Pilkington Active glass was used as a photocatalyst under UVA illumination, in a planar falling film reactor. Pilkington ActivTM glass was used as a photocatalyst and a falling liquid film generator. Degradation kinetics of both pharmaceuticals followed a pseudo-first-order model. The transformation products of both diclofenac and ibuprofen during the degradation process were detected and identified with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and ion chromatography. The results showed that the mineralization rate of both pharmaceuticals through photocatalysis was very low. Low chain carboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, oxalic, malonic, and succinic acids were the main by-products. A pathway of DCF and IBP degradation was proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: photocatalysis; titanium dioxide; diclofenac; ibuprofen; Pilkington active glass; degradation pathway photocatalysis; titanium dioxide; diclofenac; ibuprofen; Pilkington active glass; degradation pathway
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Hama Aziz, K.H.; Omer, K.M.; Mahyar, A.; Miessner, H.; Mueller, S.; Moeller, D. Application of Photocatalytic Falling Film Reactor to Elucidate the Degradation Pathways of Pharmaceutical Diclofenac and Ibuprofen in Aqueous Solutions. Coatings 2019, 9, 465.

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