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Coatings 2019, 9(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020099

Low-Pressure Plasma Sterilization for Test Specimens to be Worn on Splints in the Oral Cavity

1
Department of Biological and Material Sciences in Dentistry, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, Alfred Herrhausenstrasse 44, 58455 Witten, Germany
2
Department of Immunology, Center for Biomedical Education and Research, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, 58453 Witten, Germany
3
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
4
Department of Nuclear Engineering, Plasma for Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
5
Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Technology, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, Alfred Herrhausenstrasse 44, 58455 Witten, Germany
6
Institute for Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Westfälische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Robert Koch Straße 41, 48149 Muenster, Germany
7
School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, Alfred Herrhausenstrasse 44, 58455 Witten, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract

Bacterial biofilms adhere to all oral surfaces and may alter or degrade them. For investigations of the oral biofilm, growing on new restorative dental biomaterials, sterilized dental enamel surfaces as natural, control, and reference materials are used. A novel method for disinfection and sterilization of surfaces is low-pressure plasma (LPP) sterilization, which is a nondestructive and nontoxic technology. The roughness of the dental enamel surface was determined before and after LPP sterilization. Enamel discs were placed in dental splints and worn for five days in vivo. Oral biofilm was fixed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biofilms growing in vitro were characterized microbiologically before and after sterilization and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Microbiology demonstrated that various bacterial strains were present in the biofilms. SEM showed multiple layers of densely packed bacteria, and CLSM demonstrated that the biofilm contained live and dead bacteria. After LPP sterilization, no biofilm could be detected, and the enamel surface remained unaltered. It may be concluded that LPP sterilization is an effective, nondestructive method for disinfection of enamel before application in the oral cavity. LPP sterilization may be suitable for sterilization of dental materials without altering their surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasma; sterilization; biofilm; oral biofilm plasma; sterilization; biofilm; oral biofilm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Naumova, E.A.; Engel, A.-S.; Kranz, H.T.; Schneider, M.; Tietze, J.; Dittmar, T.; Fiebrandt, M.; Stapelmann, K.; Piwowarczyk, A.; Kuczius, T.; Arnold, W.H. Low-Pressure Plasma Sterilization for Test Specimens to be Worn on Splints in the Oral Cavity. Coatings 2019, 9, 99.

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