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Open AccessArticle

Uncertainty of the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) sin2 ψ Technique in Measuring Residual Stresses of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Hard Coatings

by Quanshun Luo 1,* and Shicai Yang 2
Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
Miba Coating Group, Teer Coatings Ltd., West Stone House, West Stone, Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich, Worcestershire WR9 9AS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2017, 7(8), 128;
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Behavior of Coatings and Engineered Surfaces)
Residual stresses of physical vapor deposition (PVD) hard coatings can be measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods under either conventional d-sin2 ψ mode or glancing incident (GIXRD) mode, in which substantial uncertainties exist depending on the applied diffraction parameters. This paper reports systematic research on the effect of the two analytical modes, as well as the anisotropic elastic modulus, on the measured residual stress values. A magnetron sputtered TiN grown on hardened tool steel was employed as the sample coating, to measure its residual stress using various diffraction peaks from {111} to {422} acquired at a range of incident glancing angles from 2° to 35°. The results were interpreted in terms of the effective X-ray penetration depth, which has been found to be determined predominantly by the incident glancing angle. In the d-sin2 ψ mode, the results present an approximate residual stress over a depth of effective X-ray penetration, and it is recommended to use a diffraction peak of high-index lattice plane from {311} to {422}. The GIXRD mode helps determine a depth profile of residual stress, since the measured residual stress depends strongly on the X-ray penetration. In addition, the anisotropy of elastic modulus shows limited influence on the calculated residual stress value. View Full-Text
Keywords: PVD hard coatings; residual stresses measurement; X-ray diffraction PVD hard coatings; residual stresses measurement; X-ray diffraction
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Luo, Q.; Yang, S. Uncertainty of the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) sin2 ψ Technique in Measuring Residual Stresses of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Hard Coatings. Coatings 2017, 7, 128.

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