Next Article in Journal
Bioactive Coatings in Dentistry—What Is the Future?
Previous Article in Journal
Corrosion Behavior of TiNi Alloy Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting in Simulated Saliva
Previous Article in Special Issue
Entropy Optimization on Axisymmetric Darcy–Forchheimer Powell–Eyring Nanofluid over a Horizontally Stretching Cylinder with Viscous Dissipation Effect
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Current Perspective on the Study of Liquid–Fluid Interfaces: From Fundamentals to Innovative Applications

Eduardo Guzmán
Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Paseo Juan XXIII 1, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 841;
Submission received: 2 June 2022 / Accepted: 13 June 2022 / Published: 16 June 2022
Liquid–fluid interfaces are ubiquitous systems, having a paramount importance for daily life as well as for academia, providing the basis for the study of different aspects of interest for medicine, biology, and physics. Moreover, liquid–fluid interfaces emerge as very promising platforms enabling the fabrication of a broad range of functional materials as a result of the novel properties resulting from quasi-2D confinement [1,2]. This drives extensive research activity trying to shed light on the most fundamental physico-chemical aspects underlying the formation of liquid–fluid interfaces, as well as the properties emerging as a consequence of the quasi-2D confinement forced by the presence of a liquid–fluid interface [3,4]. For instance, the flows emerging from the presence of an interface play a central role in a broad range of industrial and biological aspects in which liquid–fluid interfaces are involved. Thus, the reorganization of materials within a liquid–fluid interface during the compression–expansion of the alveoli as well as the exchange of material from such interfaces and the adjacent liquid layer are essential for breathing, and any dysfunction on the interfacial flows occurring during expiration–inspiration cycles can result in an acute respiratory distress syndrome [5,6]. On the other hand, interfacial flows also play a very important role in the foaming and detergency abilities of most detergents and shampoos [7,8] and in many other processes of industrial and technological relevance, including icing-deicing processes, fouling, tertiary oil recovery, drug delivery, diffusion in porous matrices, ink-jet printing, and tissue engineering [9,10].
According to the above discussion, the study of liquid–fluid interfaces is a broad field with multiple implications. Therefore, the study of this type of system deserves importance, and this Special Issue tries to bring together different studies, providing a general overview of the current perspectives offered in the study of liquid–fluid interfaces. This is only possible in the context of combining a series of research papers and reviews dealing with different experimental and theoretical studies involving liquid–fluid interfaces, expanding on the exploitation of different phenomena occurring in liquid–fluid interfaces to understand specific phenomena of biophysical relevance, e.g., the impact of inhaled pollutants on normal respiratory function [11], and the use of advances in characterization techniques for the evaluation of phenomena and processes occurring within the interface [12,13].
Moreover, liquid–fluid interfaces play a very important role in the control of the flows occurring under different boundary conditions and their implications in different processes with technological and industrial interest. For instance, an accurate modelling of the flows occurring within porous systems can help in the optimization of different processes, including tertiary oil recovery and froth flotation [14,15,16,17]. Furthermore, the interfacial flows also contribute to spreading and evaporation phenomena, influencing the performance of different industrial processes, lubrication, and heat dissipation [18,19,20,21].
In summary, the study of the phenomena and applications involving liquid–fluid interfaces requires a broad perspective, which in current years is structured as a multi-disciplinary challenge involving theoretical and experimental aspects to solve very complex problems. This Special Issue, together with the previous one entitled “Fluid Interfaces” [22] and the topic entitled “Insight into Liquid-Fluid Interfaces” [23], are focused to provide a comprehensive perspective on the current understanding of the study of liquid/fluid interfaces, contributing to open new avenues that close the gap between the most fundamental aspects of liquid–fluid interfaces and their potential applications.


This research received no external funding.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Forth, J.; Kim, P.Y.; Xie, G.; Liu, X.; Helms, B.A.; Russell, T.P. Building Reconfigurable Devices Using Complex Liquid–Fluid Interfaces. Adv. Mat. 2019, 31, 1806370. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Bayles, A.V.; Vermant, J. Divide, Conquer, and Stabilize: Engineering Strong Fluid–Fluid Interfaces. Lanmguir 2022, 21, 6499–6505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Llamas, S.; Guzmán, E.; Akanno, A.; Fernández-Peña, L.; Ortega, F.; Campbell, R.A.; Miller, R.; Rubio, R.G. Study of the Liquid/Vapor Interfacial Properties of Concentrated Polyelectrolyte–Surfactant Mixtures Using Surface Tensiometry and Neutron Reflectometry: Equilibrium, Adsorption Kinetics, and Dilational Rheology. J. Phys. Chem. C 2018, 122, 4419–4427. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Llamas, S.; Fernández-Peña, L.; Akanno, A.; Guzmán, E.; Orteg, V.; Ortega, F.; Csaky, A.G.; Campbell, R.A.; Rubio, R.G. Towards understanding the behavior of polyelectrolyte–surfactant mixtures at the water/vapor interface closer to technologically-relevant conditions. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2018, 20, 1395–1407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Guzmán, E.; Santini, E. Lung surfactant-particles at fluid interfaces for toxicity assessments. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2019, 39, 24–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Castillo-Sánchez, J.C.; Cruz, A.; Pérez-Gil, J. Structural hallmarks of lung surfactant: Lipid-protein interactions, membrane structure and future challenges. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2021, 703, 108850. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Fernández-Peña, L.; Guzmán, E.; Leonforte, F.; Serrano-Pueyo, A.; Regulski, K.; Tournier-Couturier, L.; Ortega, F.; Rubio, R.G.; Luengo, G.S. Effect of molecular structure of eco-friendly glycolipid biosurfactants on the adsorption of hair-care conditioning polymers. Colloids Surf. B 2020, 185, 110578. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Fernández-Peña, L.; Guzmán, E.; Fernández-Pérez, C.; Barba-Nieto, I.; Ortega, F.; Leonforte, F.; Rubio, R.G.; Luengo, G.S. Study of the Dilution-Induced Deposition of Concentrated Mixtures of Polyelectrolytes and Surfactants. Polymers 2022, 14, 1335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Ferrari, M.; Cirisano, F. High transmittance and highly amphiphobic coatings for environmental protection of solar panels. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2020, 286, 102309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Perrin, L.; Pajor-Swierzy, A.; Magdassi, S.; Kamyshny, A.; Ortega, F.; Rubio, R.G. Evaporation of Nanosuspensions on Substrates with Different Hydrophobicity. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10, 3082–3093. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Guzmán, E. Fluid Films as Models for Understanding the Impact of Inhaled Particles in Lung Surfactant Layers. Coatings 2022, 12, 277. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Yano, A.; Hamada, K.; Amagai, K. Evaluation of Coating Film Formation Process Using the Fluorescence Method. Coatings 2021, 11, 1076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Salum, P.; Güven, O.; Aydemir, L.Y.; Erbay, Z. Microscopy-Assisted Digital Image Analysis with Trainable Weka Segmentation (TWS) for Emulsion Droplet Size Determination. Coatings 2022, 12, 364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Khan, S.; Selim, M.M.; Khan, A.; Ullah, A.; Abdeljawad, T.; Ikramullah; Ayaz, M.; Mashwani, W.K. On the Analysis of the Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Past a Stretching/Shrinking Permeable Surface with Heat and Mass Transfer. Coatings 2021, 11, 566. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Usman, A.H.; Shah, Z.; Kumam, P.; Khan, W.; Humphries, U.W. Nanomechanical Concepts in Magnetically Guided Systems to Investigate the Magnetic Dipole Effect on Ferromagnetic Flow Past a Vertical Cone Surface. Coatings 2021, 11, 1129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Shoaib, M.; Zubair, G.; Raja, M.A.Z.; Nisar, K.S.; Abdel-Aty, A.-H.; Yahia, I.S. Study of 3-D Prandtl Nanofluid Flow over a Convectively Heated Sheet: A Stochastic Intelligent Technique. Coatings 2022, 12, 24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Shah, Z.; Vrinceanu, N.; Rooman, M.; Deebani, W.; Shutaywi, M. Mathematical Modelling of Ree-Eyring Nanofluid Using Koo-Kleinstreuer and Cattaneo-Christov Models on Chemically Reactive AA7072–AA7075 Alloys over a Magnetic Dipole Stretching Surface. Coatings 2022, 12, 391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Li, D.; Zhao, N.; Feng, Y.; Xie, Z. Numerical Investigation on the Evaporation Performance of Desulfurization Wastewater in a Spray Drying Tower without Deflectors. Coatings 2021, 11, 1022. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Veronesi, F.; Guarini, G.; Corozzi, A.; Raimondo, M. Evaluation of the Durability of Slippery, Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces in Different Aggressive Environments: Influence of the Chemical-Physical Properties of Lubricants. Coatings 2021, 11, 1170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Jiang, B.; Shen, Y.; Tao, J.; Xu, Y.; Chen, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, W.; Xie, X. Patterning Configuration of Surface Hydrophilicity by Graphene Nanosheet towards the Inhibition of Ice Nucleation and Growth. Coatings 2022, 12, 52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Liu, W.-J.; Chang, Y.-H.; Fern, C.-L.; Chen, Y.-T.; Jhou, T.-Y.; Chiu, P.-C.; Lin, S.-H.; Lin, K.-W.; Wu, T.-H. Annealing Effect on the Contact Angle, Surface Energy, Electric Property, and Nanomechanical Characteristics of Co40Fe40W20 Thin Films. Coatings 2021, 11, 1268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Guzmán, E. Eduardo Guzmán. Coatings 2020, 10, 1000. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Insight into Liquid/Fluid Interfaces. Available online: (accessed on 30 May 2022).

Short Biography of Author

Eduardo Guzmán, Associate Professor at the Physico-Chemistry Department and researcher at the Multi-disciplinary Institute in the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain), received his MSc in Chemistry and in Science and Technology of Colloids and Interfaces, and his PhD in Science at the Complutense University of Madrid (Spain). After his PhD, he worked for a period of four years at the Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interface in Genoa (Italy), after which he returned to his alma mater. He has published over 100 papers in JCR journals and 12 chapters in books (, H-index 32, and has co-authored more than 100 contributions to different national and international conferences. His main research interests are LbL assembly, interfacial rheology, drug delivery, biophysics, cosmetics, and pest control. He has been the supervisor of 3 PhD students, 10 Master students and 25 undergraduate students. He has been involved in 2 EU and 6 Spanish-funded founded I+D grants and has been scientifically responsible for 4 cooperation projects between academia and industry. He is a member of the editorial board of different scientific journals, including Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Colloids and Interfaces, Coatings (Editor in Chief of the Section “Liquid-Fluid Interfaces”), Polymers and Current Cosmetic Science, and has edited special issues in Coatings, Processes, Polymers, and Advances in Colloid and Interface Science.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Guzmán, E. Current Perspective on the Study of Liquid–Fluid Interfaces: From Fundamentals to Innovative Applications. Coatings 2022, 12, 841.

AMA Style

Guzmán E. Current Perspective on the Study of Liquid–Fluid Interfaces: From Fundamentals to Innovative Applications. Coatings. 2022; 12(6):841.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guzmán, Eduardo. 2022. "Current Perspective on the Study of Liquid–Fluid Interfaces: From Fundamentals to Innovative Applications" Coatings 12, no. 6: 841.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop