Key advantages of Poly(methyl methacrylate)—PMMA for denture application are related to aesthetics and biocompatibility, while its main deficiency is related to mechanical properties. To address this issue, SiO2
nanoparticle reinforcement was proposed, containing 0 to 5% nanosilica, to form nanocomposite materials. Flexural strengths and elastic moduli were determined and correlated to nominal nanoparticle content and zeta potential of the liquid phase nanoparticle solutions. Another issue is the biocompatibility, which was determined in terms of cytotoxicity, using L929 and MRC5 cell lines. The addition of nanoparticle was proved to be beneficial for increasing flexural strength and modulus, causing a significant increase in both strength and moduli. On the other hand, the formation of agglomerates was noted, particularly at higher nanoparticle loadings, affecting mechanical properties. The addition of nanosilica had an adverse effect on the cytotoxicity, increasing it above the level present in unmodified specimens. Cytotoxic potential was on the acceptable level for specimens with up to 2% nanosilica. Consequently, nanosilica proved to be an effective and biocompatible means of increasing the resistance of dental materials.
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