- freely available
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020171
2. Mechanism of Surface Impedance Reduction Wear and Theoretical Analysis of Fluid Dynamic Pressure
2.1. Impedance Reduction Grinding Mechanism of Micro-Pits/Grooves
2.2. Universal Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication Based on Couette Flow
3. Biomimetic Microtextured Surfaces
3.1. Revelation of Nature
3.2. Research Status of Two Widely Used Biomimetic Textures
4. Surface Texture Processing Technology
- Micro-cutting processing technology refers to a technology that uses a special processing tool and a specific processing machine to process a small texture with a certain shape and size on the surface of a workpiece. The requirements for cutting tools and machine tools are high, especially the hardness and wear resistance of the cutting tool, and the anti-adhesion to the workpiece is better. This processing technology has the advantages of a high efficiency and wide processing range.
- Electric discharge machining (EDM) technology refers to a special processing technology that uses the high temperature generated by EDM to melt the surface of a workpiece to produce the required texture. The purpose of material removal is achieved by the electric erosion effect that is formed by the pulse discharge between the two electrodes. D.P. Chowdhury et al. used EDM technology to study process methods. Anonymous et al.  studied EDM technology through experiments and obtained an optimal combination of electrical parameters that greatly improved efficiency.
- Electrolytic processing is a processing technology that uses the principle of the electrochemical anode dissolution of metallic materials in electrolytes to form anode workpieces. It has many advantages, such as a good processing quality, a wide range, and high efficiency. The method is costly. Some domestic and foreign scholars have proposed the use of an electrochemical machining method to remove sample metal materials to get the pits and to clean the surface mask to obtain a sample with a desired surface texture. This method can improve the friction performance, wear performance, and service life of mechanical seals.
- Reactive ion etching (RIE) is an etching method based on physical and chemical reactions. After the ions that are generated in the ion source are extracted, they are accelerated and focused to form an ion beam, which impacts the workpiece surface in a vacuum and uses its kinetic energy for processing . Compared with LIGA (Lithogrophy electroforming micro molding) technology, RIE technology can perform engraving at less than 50 nm at a relatively fast direct write speed, and it is a computer-controlled mask-free injection without development etching that enables the directly fabrication of various nanodevice structures. RIE technology is a suitable choice for the preparation of small-scale and high-precision micro-textures in laboratory experiments. However, there are also some problems in the processing process of RIE technology such as the prominent damage that is created, the difficulty in controlling the ion beam processing precision, a control precision that is not high enough, and the requirement of expensive experimental environment. Additionally, the initial basic experimental equipment of this technology is expensive, the whole production cycle is long, and the process is complex. In terms of cost and efficiency, RIE technology is still slightly flawed [24,25]. Before processing, a photoresist mask is usually made on the surface of the workpiece by using traditional photolithography technology to protect the surface before processing. This technique has strong anisotropy and high selectivity. The entire processing process needs to be performed in a vacuum environment, which also increases its cost.
- Micro-abrasive jet processing technology is mainly divided into micro-abrasive air jet processing technology and micro-abrasive water jet processing technology. High-pressure air or water is used as the medium to drive the micro-abrasive to form a high-pressure jet in a special nozzle. The interaction between the abrasive particles and the work piece can achieve the effect of material removal, which is suitable for the micro-cutting and polishing of hard, brittle, and composite materials. However, the jet diffusion phenomenon exists. When the jet distance is large, the size and surface quality of the processing area are not easy to control. Therefore, this processing method can be used to process simple grooves and small-size micro-textures at a small jet distance [26,27,28].
- Laser surface texture (LST) technology is a kind of the nanosecond modelling of femtosecond lasers in micron or nanometer level surface processing technology; it can produce all kinds of precise shapes that are flexible in complex surface textures, its size control ability is strong, and its manufacturing processing speed is fast. Thus, the LST is one of the more successful methods, it is the most widely used surface micro texture technology [29,30], and it has the advantages of environmental protection and no “tool” wear. Since the laser equipment itself is relatively expensive compared with general processing equipment and the environmental requirements in the actual processing process are higher, the initial and later costs of LST technology are relatively high. In addition, after LST processing, there are bumps on the surface that require later polishing or chemical treatment, thus increasing the workload and cost. Third, due to the high energy density of laser, LST technology inevitably causes associated damage to the surrounding surface of the texture, and, due to the penetrability of light, LST technology cannot be used for transparent or other materials with special optical properties. These insurmountable defects also limit the development of LST technology in practical applications . GOYA K et al.  gave a detailed review of femtosecond laser processing at home and abroad. Mistry V et al.  used finite element simulation technology to analyze key process parameters in liquid-assisted laser beam micromachining. Ahmmed K M T et al.  studied laser processing technology in regards to the grooves on the surface of a complex curved surface—parameters such as laser power and scanning frequency were experimentally compared to determine optimal parameters.
5. The Effect of Texture Size on Frictional Wear Property
5.1. Pit Diameter
5.2. Pit Depth
5.3. Groove Width
6. The Effect of Texture Spacing on Frictional Wear Properties
6.1. Pit Spacing
6.2. Groove Spacing
7. The Effect of Texture Occupancy on Frictional Wear Properties
7.1. Pit Occupancy Rate
7.2. Groove Occupancy Rate
- The most widely studied textures are those of the pit and groove types, of which the pit type has better wear resistance effects and the groove type has better drag reduction and lubrication effects.
- Here, the sample with a pit diameter of 10 μm had the lowest coefficient of friction and abrasion amounts in the oil-free condition, and the pit with a depth of 3 μm had the best wear resistance and wear rate; these findings can help to further improve friction and wear performance.
- Here, the effect of wear resistance and wear rate reduction was best when the groove width was 60 μm. Meanwhile, a reasonable groove pitch of 135 μm was adopted, and this groove’s density was 37%.
- Micro-pits can store grinding debris under dry friction conditions and realize secondary lubrication under oil lubrication. When the oil is lubricated, a micro-groove can form a dynamic pressure effect in the convergence field, which can also realize secondary lubrication and reduce contact area.
- In order to analyze the dynamic pressure lubrication mechanism, one must set the boundary, simplify the Navier–Stokes equation according to the Couette flow, and obtain the relationship between the coefficient of friction and hydrodynamic parameters.
Conflicts of Interest
- Zhang, Q.; Chen, Z.H.; Wang, X.D. Bionics and Building Structure. Appl. Mech. Mater. 2011, 94, 450–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pal, J.W.; Yan, X.S.; Jen, F.L. Characteristics of water strider legs in hydrodynamic situations. Langmuir 2009, 25, 7006–7009. [Google Scholar]
- Xu, Q.; Wan, Y.; Hu, T.S.; Liu, T.X.; Tao, D.; Niewiarowski, P.H.; Tian, Y.; Liu, Y.; Dai, L.; Yang, Y.; et al. Robust self-cleaning and micromanipulation capabilities of gecko spatulate and their bio-mimics. Nat. Commun. 2015, 6, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bixler, G.D.; Bhushan, B. Fluid drag reduction with shark-skin riblet inspired micro structured surface. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2013, 23, 4507–4528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liu, C.; Zhu, L.; Bu, W.; Liang, Y. Superhydrophobic surfaces: From nature to biomimetic through VOF simulation. Micron 2018, 107, 94–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guo, Z.; Yuan, C.; Liu, A.; Jiang, S. Study on tribological properties of novel biomimetic material for water-lubricated stern tube bearing. Wear 2017, 376, 911–919. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gropper, D.; Wang, L.; Harvey, T.J. Hydrodynamic lubrication of textured surfaces: A review of modeling techniques and key findings. Tribol. Int. 2016, 94, 509–529. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xing, Y.; Deng, J.; Feng, X.; Yu, S. Effect of laser surface texturing on Si3N4/TiC ceramic sliding against steel under dry friction. Mater. Des. 2013, 52, 234–245. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Qin, Y.K.; Xiong, D.S.; Li, J.L. Tribological properties of laser surface textured and plasma electrolytic oxidation duplex-treated Ti6Al4V alloy deposited with MoS2 film. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2015, 269, 266–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saeidi, F.; Meylan, B.; Hoffmann, P.; Wasmer, K. Effect of surface texturing on cast iron reciprocating against steel under starved lubrication conditions: A parametric study. Wear 2016, 348, 17–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fowell, M.; Olver, A.V.; Gosman, A.D.; Spikes, H.A.; Pegg, I. Entrainment and inlet suction: Two mechanisms of hydrodynamic lubrication in textured bearings. J. Tribol. 2007, 129, 336–347. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Han, J.; Fang, L.; Sun, J.; Ge, S. Hydrodynamic lubrication of micro dimple textured surface using three-dimensional CFD. Tribol. Trans. 2010, 53, 860–870. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brizmer, V.; Kligerman, Y.; Etsion, I. A Laser Surface Textured Parallel Thrust Bearing. Tribol. Trans. 2003, 46, 397–403. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cheng, X.J.; Ru, S.F.; Sun, Y.W.; Cong, Q. Wear performance of bionic strip-shaped mud pump pistons. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part C J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 2017, 231, 4076–4084. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huang, W.; Wang, X. Biomimetic design of elastomer surface pattern for friction control under wet conditions. Bioinspiration Biomim. 2013, 8, 046001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tan, A.H.; Wei, C.S. A novel textured design for hard disk tribology improvement. Tribol. Int. 2006, 39, 506–511. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yu, H.Y.; Zhang, H.C.; Guo, Y.Y.; Tan, H.P.; Li, Y.; Xie, G.N. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow. Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 2016, 28, 1361–1371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ibatan, T.; Uddin, M.S.; Chowdhury, M.A.K. Recent development on surface texturing in enhancing tribological performance of bearing sliders. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2015, 272, 102–120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahmed, A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Varman, M.; Kalam, M.A.; Habibullah, M.; Al Mahmud, K.A.H. An overview of geometrical parameters of surface texturing for piston/cylinder assembly and mechanical seals. Meccanica 2016, 51, 9–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Srinivas, S.; Babu, N.R. Penetration Ability of Abrasive Waterjets in Cutting of Aluminum-Silicon Carbide Particulate Metal Matrix Composites. Mach. Sci. Technol. 2012, 16, 337–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coblas, D.G.; Fatu, A.; Maoui, A.; Hajjam, M. Manufacturing textured surfaces: State of art and recent developments. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J J. Eng. Tribol. 2015, 229, 3–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anonymous. Applied Physics; Researchers at Aachen University publish new data on applied physics. News Sci. 2008, 112, 65–93. [Google Scholar]
- Wang, X.; Kato, K.; Adachi, K. The lubrication effect of micro-pits on parallel sliding faces of SiC in water. Tribol. Trans. 2002, 45, 294–301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wang, X.; Adachi, K.; Otsuka, K.; Kato, K. Optimization of the surface texture for silicon carbide sliding in water. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2006, 253, 1282–1286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yoo, J.; Yu, G.; Yi, J. Large-area multi-crystalline silicon solar cell fabrication using reactive ion etching (RIE). Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2011, 95, 2–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Balasubramaniam, R.; Krishnan, J.; Ramakrishnan, N. A study on the shape of the surface generated by abrasive jet machining. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 2002, 121, 102–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Getu, H.; Ghobeity, A.; Spelt, J.K.; Papini, M. Abrasive jet micromachining of acrylic and polycarbonate polymers at oblique angles of attack. Wear 2008, 265, 888–901. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saragih, A.S.; Ko, T.J. Fabrication of passive glass micromixer with third-dimensional feature by employing SU8 mask on micro-abrasive jet machining. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2009, 42, 474–481. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Voevodin, A.A.; Zabinski, J.S. Laser surface texturing for adaptive solid lubrication. Wear 2006, 261, 1285–1292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Andersson, P.; Koskinen, J.; Varjus, S.; Gerbig, Y.; Haefke, H.; Georgiou, S.; Zhmud, B.; Buss, W. Microlubricat ion effect by laser- textured steel surfaces. Wear 2007, 262, 369–379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sanchez-Amaya, J.M.; Boukha, Z.; GonzGlez-Rovira, L.; Navas, J.; Martin-Calleja, J.; Botana, F.J. Laser texturization to improve absorption and weld penetration of aluminum alloys. J. Laser Appl. 2012, 24, 012002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goya, K.; Itoh, T.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K. Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm second harmonic Ti: Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-liter spectrometer. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2015, 210, 685–691. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mistry, V.; James, S. Finite element analysis and simulation of liquid-assisted laser beam machining process. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2018, 94, 2325–2331. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahmmed, K.M.T.; Grambow, C.; Kietzig, A. Fabrication of micro/nano structures on metals by femtosecond laser micromachining. Micro Mach. 2014, 5, 1219–1253. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pettersson, U.; Jacobson, S. Textured surfaces in sliding boundary lubricated contacts-mechanisms, possibilities and limitations. Tribol. Mater. Surf. Interfaces 2007, 1, 181–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koszela, W.; Dzierwa, A.; Galda, L.; Pawlus, P. Experimental investigation of oil pockets effect on abrasive wear resistance. ASME J. Tribol. 2012, 46, 145–153. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kim, B.; Chae, Y.H.; Choi, H.S. Effects of surface texturing on the frictional behavior of cast iron surfaces. Tribol. Int. 2014, 70, 128–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shen, X.H.; Tao, G.C. Tribological behaviors of two micro textured surfaces generated by vibrating milling under boundary lubricated sliding. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2015, 79, 1995–2002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mourier, L.; Mazuyer, D.; Ninove, F.P.; Lubrecht, A.A. Lubrication mechanisms with laser-surface-textured surfaces in elasto hydrodynamic regime. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J J. Eng. Tribol. 2010, 224, 697–711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Andriy, K.; Oyelayo, A. The effect of laser texturing of steel sur-faces and speed-load parameters on the transition of lubrication regime from boundary to hydrodynamic. Tribol. Trans. 2004, 47, 299–307. [Google Scholar]
- Ito, H.; Kaneda, K.; Yuhta, T.; Nishimura, I.; Yasuda, K.; Matsuno, T. Reduction of polyethylene wear by concave dimples on the frictional surface in artificial hip joints. J. Arthroplast. 2000, 15, 332–338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kumari, R.; Scharnweber, T.; Pfleging, W.; Besser, H.; Majumdar, J.D. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)-Part II-studies on bio-compatibility. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2015, 355, 104–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yu, A.B.; Niu, W.Y.; Hong, X.; He, Y.; Wu, M.; Chen, Q.; Ding, M. Influence of tribo-magnetization on wear debris trapping processes of textured dimples. Tribol. Int. 2018, 121, 84–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kawasegi, N.; Sugimori, H.; Morimoto, H.; Morita, N.; Hori, I. Development of cutting tools with microscale and nanoscale textures to improve frictional behavior. Precis. Eng. 2009, 33, 248–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Noor, E.E.M.; Sing, H.A.; Chuan, Y.T. A review: Influence of nano particles reinforced on solder alloy. Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 2013, 25, 229–241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lei, S.T.; Devarajan, S.; Chang, Z.H. A study of micro pool lubricated cutting tool in machining of mild steel. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 2009, 209, 1612–1620. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gao, X.; Chen, Q.; Teng, H.D. Primary resonance analysis of solid and liquid mixture vibration isolation system. J. Mech. Eng. 2012, 48, 90–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Liu, N.; Wang, J.; Chen, B.; Yan, F. Tribo-chemical aspects of silicon nitride ceramic sliding against stainless steel under the lubrication of seawater. Tribol. Int. 2013, 61, 205–213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jin, K.; Qiao, Z.; Zhu, S.; Cheng, J.; Yin, B.; Yang, J. Tribo-chemical properties of bronze-Cr-Ag alloy in seawater, NaCl solution and deionized water. Tribol. Int. 2016, 98, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Etsion, I.; Halperin, G.; Brizmer, V.; Kligerman, Y. Experimental investigation of laser surface textured parallel thrust bearings. Tribol. Lett. 2004, 17, 295–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Borghi, A.; Gualtieri, E.; Marchetto, D.; Moretti, L.; Valeri, S. Tribological effects of surface texturing on nitriding steel for high-performance engine applications. Wear 2008, 265, 1046–1051. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Coefficient of Friction||Textureless Surface||Spacing 20 μm||Spacing 30 μm|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).