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Open AccessArticle

Measuring Appropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Acute Hospitals: Development of a National Audit Tool Through a Delphi Consensus

by Graeme Hood 1, Kieran S. Hand 2, Emma Cramp 3, Philip Howard 4, Susan Hopkins 1 and Diane Ashiru-Oredope 1,* on behalf of Antibiotic Prescribing Appropriateness Measures (APAM) subgroup of the national Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARPHAI)
1
Public Health England, London SE1 8UG, UK
2
University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and School of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
3
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK
4
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Leeds, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020049
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper in Antibiotics for 2019)
This study developed a patient-level audit tool to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in the UK. A modified Delphi process was used to evaluate variables identified from published literature that could be used to support an assessment of appropriateness of antibiotic use. At a national workshop, 22 infection experts reached a consensus to define appropriate prescribing and agree upon an initial draft audit tool. Following this, a national multidisciplinary panel of 19 infection experts, of whom only one was part of the workshop, was convened to evaluate and validate variables using questionnaires to confirm the relevance of each variable in assessing appropriate prescribing. The initial evidence synthesis of published literature identified 25 variables that could be used to support an assessment of appropriateness of antibiotic use. All the panel members reviewed the variables for the first round of the Delphi; the panel accepted 23 out of 25 variables. Following review by the project team, one of the two rejected variables was rephrased, and the second neutral variable was re-scored. The panel accepted both these variables in round two with a 68% response rate. Accepted variables were used to develop an audit tool to determine the extent of appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing at the individual patient level in acute NHS hospitals through infection expert consensus based on the results of a Delphi process. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; antimicrobial stewardship; inappropriate prescribing; days of therapy; Start Smart then Focus Antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; antimicrobial stewardship; inappropriate prescribing; days of therapy; Start Smart then Focus
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Hood, G.; Hand, K.S.; Cramp, E.; Howard, P.; Hopkins, S.; Ashiru-Oredope, D., on behalf of Antibiotic Prescribing Appropriateness Measures (APAM) subgroup of the national Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing and Healthcare Associated Infection (ARPHAI); Measuring Appropriate Antibiotic Prescribing in Acute Hospitals: Development of a National Audit Tool Through a Delphi Consensus. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 49.

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