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Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) Activity of Propolis

Department of Biological Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8, Canada
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1 Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed author.
Academic Editor: Leonard Amaral
Antibiotics 2018, 7(1), 2;
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top 35 of Antibiotics Travel Awards 2017)
White-nose syndrome (WNS) in bats, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), is a cutaneous infection that has devastated North American bat populations since 2007. At present, there is no effective method for controlling this disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of propolis against Pd in vitro. Using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium, approximately 1.7 × 107 conidia spores of the Pd strain M3906-2/mL were spread on each plate and grown to form a consistent lawn. A Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion assay was employed using different concentrations of propolis (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), in plates incubated at 8 °C and 15 °C. At 8 °C and 15 °C, as the concentration of propolis increased, there was an increasing zone of inhibition (ZOI), reaching the highest degree at 10% and 25% concentrations, respectively. A germule suppression assay showed a similar effect on Pd conidia germination. A MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of propolis revealed multiple constituents with a potential anti-Pd activity, including cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and dihydrochalcones, which could be further tested for their individual effects. Our study suggests that propolis or its individual constituents might be suitable products against Pd. View Full-Text
Keywords: propolis; white-nose syndrome; Pseudogymnoascus destructans; anti-Pd activities; anti-fungal; fungal infection in bats propolis; white-nose syndrome; Pseudogymnoascus destructans; anti-Pd activities; anti-fungal; fungal infection in bats
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghosh, S.; McArthur, R.; Guo, Z.C.; McKerchar, R.; Donkor, K.; Xu, J.; Cheeptham, N. Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) Activity of Propolis. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 2.

AMA Style

Ghosh S, McArthur R, Guo ZC, McKerchar R, Donkor K, Xu J, Cheeptham N. Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) Activity of Propolis. Antibiotics. 2018; 7(1):2.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghosh, Soumya, Robyn McArthur, Zhi C. Guo, Rory McKerchar, Kingsley Donkor, Jianping Xu, and Naowarat Cheeptham. 2018. "Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) Activity of Propolis" Antibiotics 7, no. 1: 2.

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