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Thioridazine: A Non-Antibiotic Drug Highly Effective, in Combination with First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs, against Any Form of Antibiotic Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Due to Its Multi-Mechanisms of Action

1
Insititute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon 1349-008, Portugal
2
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, University of Szeged, Szeged 6720, Hungary
3
Unidade de Microbiologia Médica, Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon 1349-008, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William R. Schwan
Antibiotics 2017, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics6010003
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Discover New Antibiotics 2016)
This review presents the evidence that supports the use of thioridazine (TZ) for the therapy of a pulmonary tuberculosis infection regardless of its antibiotic resistance status. The evidence consists of in vitro and ex vivo assays that demonstrate the activity of TZ against all encountered Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) regardless of its antibiotic resistance phenotype, as well as in vivo as a therapy for mice infected with multi-drug resistant strains of Mtb, or for human subjects infected with extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mtb. The mechanisms of action by which TZ brings about successful therapeutic outcomes are presented in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistant pulmonary tuberculosis; thioridazine; in vitro activity; ex vivo activity; in vivo activity (murine model and human trails); the non-killing macrophage; enhancement of intracellular killing of Mtb by thioridazine; mechanism of actions of thioridazine antibiotic resistant pulmonary tuberculosis; thioridazine; in vitro activity; ex vivo activity; in vivo activity (murine model and human trails); the non-killing macrophage; enhancement of intracellular killing of Mtb by thioridazine; mechanism of actions of thioridazine
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Amaral, L.; Viveiros, M. Thioridazine: A Non-Antibiotic Drug Highly Effective, in Combination with First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs, against Any Form of Antibiotic Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Due to Its Multi-Mechanisms of Action. Antibiotics 2017, 6, 3.

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