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Antibiotics 2013, 2(3), 419-438;

Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics

School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 17 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [641 KB, uploaded 4 September 2013]   |  


Since the production of the first pharmaceutically active molecules at the beginning of the 1900s, drug molecules and their metabolites have been observed in the environment in significant concentrations. In this review, the persistence of antibiotics in the environment and their associated effects on ecosystems, bacterial resistance and health effects will be examined. Solutions to these problems will also be discussed, including the pharmaceutical industries input, green chemistry, computer modeling and representative ionic liquid research. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic; resistance; environment; ionic liquid; green chemistry; biodegradation; toxicity antibiotic; resistance; environment; ionic liquid; green chemistry; biodegradation; toxicity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Jordan, A.; Gathergood, N. Designing Safer and Greener Antibiotics. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 419-438.

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