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Article

Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Carrying Biofilm-Associated Genes and a Unique Composite of SCCmec

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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Centre for Artificial Intelligence in Precision Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Soba University Hospital, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11115, Sudan
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Laboratory of Analysis, Treatment and Valorization of Pollutants of the Environmental and Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Monastir, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ravi Kant and Tarja Sironen
Antibiotics 2022, 11(7), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070861
Received: 16 May 2022 / Revised: 20 June 2022 / Accepted: 22 June 2022 / Published: 24 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Genomics of Pathogens)
Staphylococcus epidermidis is part of the normal human flora that has recently become an important opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections and tends to be multidrug-resistant. In this investigation, we aimed to study the genomic characteristics of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis isolated from clinical specimens. Three isolates were identified using biochemical tests and evaluated for drug susceptibility. Genomic DNA sequences were obtained using Illumina, and were processed for analysis using various bioinformatics tools. The isolates showed multidrug resistance to most of the antibiotics tested in this study, and were identified with three types (III(3A), IV(2B&5), and VI(4B)) of the mobile genetic element SCCmec that carries the methicillin resistance gene (mecA) and its regulators (mecI and mecR1). A total of 11 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) was identified as chromosomally mediated or in plasmids; these genes encode for proteins causing decreased susceptibility to methicillin (mecA), penicillin (blaZ), fusidic acid (fusB), fosfomycin (fosB), tetracycline (tet(K)), aminoglycosides (aadD, aac(6′)-aph(2′’)), fluoroquinolone (MFS antibiotic efflux pump), trimethoprim (dfrG), macrolide (msr(A)), and chlorhexidine (qacA)). Additionally, the 9SE strain belongs to the globally disseminated ST2, and harbors biofilm-formation genes (icaA, icaB, icaC, icaD, and IS256) with phenotypic biofilm production capability. It also harbors the fusidic acid resistance gene (fusB), which could increase the risk of device-associated healthcare infections, and 9SE has been identified as having a unique extra SCC gene (ccrB4); this new composite element of the ccr type needs more focus to better understand its role in the drug resistance mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulase-negative S. epidermidis; MDR; SCCmec elements; mecA; CoNS coagulase-negative S. epidermidis; MDR; SCCmec elements; mecA; CoNS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Altayb, H.N.; Elbadawi, H.S.; Baothman, O.; Kazmi, I.; Alzahrani, F.A.; Nadeem, M.S.; Hosawi, S.; Chaieb, K. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Carrying Biofilm-Associated Genes and a Unique Composite of SCCmec. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070861

AMA Style

Altayb HN, Elbadawi HS, Baothman O, Kazmi I, Alzahrani FA, Nadeem MS, Hosawi S, Chaieb K. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Carrying Biofilm-Associated Genes and a Unique Composite of SCCmec. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(7):861. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070861

Chicago/Turabian Style

Altayb, Hisham N., Hana S. Elbadawi, Othman Baothman, Imran Kazmi, Faisal A. Alzahrani, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Salman Hosawi, and Kamel Chaieb. 2022. "Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Carrying Biofilm-Associated Genes and a Unique Composite of SCCmec" Antibiotics 11, no. 7: 861. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11070861

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