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Article

Multifractal Analysis to Determine the Effect of Surface Topography on the Distribution, Density, Dispersion and Clustering of Differently Organised Coccal-Shaped Bacteria

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Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
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Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
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Department of Computing and Mathematics, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
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Microbiology at Interfaces, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Maresca
Antibiotics 2022, 11(5), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050551
Received: 22 March 2022 / Revised: 11 April 2022 / Accepted: 13 April 2022 / Published: 21 April 2022
The topographic features of surfaces are known to affect bacterial retention on a surface, but the precise mechanisms of this phenomenon are little understood. Four coccal-shaped bacteria, Staphylococcus sciuri, Streptococcus pyogenes, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus, that organise in different cellular groupings (grape-like clusters, tetrad-arranging clusters, short chains, and diploid arrangement, respectively) were used. These differently grouped cells were used to determine how surface topography affected their distribution, density, dispersion, and clustering when retained on titanium surfaces with defined topographies. Titanium-coated surfaces that were smooth and had grooved features of 1.02 µm-wide, 0.21 µm-deep grooves, and 0.59 µm-wide, 0.17 µm-deep grooves were used. The average contact angle of the surfaces was 91°. All bacterial species were overall of a hydrophobic nature, although M. luteus was the least hydrophobic. It was demonstrated that the 1.02 µm-wide featured surface most affected Strep. pyogenes and S. sciuri, and hence the surfaces with the larger surface features most affected the cells with smaller dimensions. The 0.59 µm featured surface only affected the density of the bacteria, and it may be suggested that the surfaces with the smaller features reduced bacterial retention. These results demonstrate that the size of the topographical surface features affect the distribution, density, dispersion, and clustering of bacteria across surfaces, and this is related to the cellular organisation of the bacterial species. The results from this work inform how surface topographical and bacterial properties affect the distribution, density, dispersion, and clustering of bacterial retention. View Full-Text
Keywords: coccal bacteria; multifractal analysis; linear topography; density; dispersion; clustering coccal bacteria; multifractal analysis; linear topography; density; dispersion; clustering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Evans, A.; Slate, A.J.; Tobin, M.; Lynch, S.; Wilson Nieuwenhuis, J.; Verran, J.; Kelly, P.; Whitehead, K.A. Multifractal Analysis to Determine the Effect of Surface Topography on the Distribution, Density, Dispersion and Clustering of Differently Organised Coccal-Shaped Bacteria. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 551. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050551

AMA Style

Evans A, Slate AJ, Tobin M, Lynch S, Wilson Nieuwenhuis J, Verran J, Kelly P, Whitehead KA. Multifractal Analysis to Determine the Effect of Surface Topography on the Distribution, Density, Dispersion and Clustering of Differently Organised Coccal-Shaped Bacteria. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(5):551. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050551

Chicago/Turabian Style

Evans, Adele, Anthony J. Slate, Millie Tobin, Stephen Lynch, Joels Wilson Nieuwenhuis, Joanna Verran, Peter Kelly, and Kathryn A. Whitehead. 2022. "Multifractal Analysis to Determine the Effect of Surface Topography on the Distribution, Density, Dispersion and Clustering of Differently Organised Coccal-Shaped Bacteria" Antibiotics 11, no. 5: 551. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050551

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