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Article

Empowering Patients to Self-Manage Common Infections: Qualitative Study Informing the Development of an Evidence-Based Patient Information Leaflet

Primary Care and Interventions Unit, Public Health England, Gloucester GL1 1DQ, UK
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Academic Editors: Seok Hoon Jeong and Diane Ashiru-Oredope 
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091113
Received: 9 August 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Prescribing and Stewardship, 2nd Volume)
Common self-limiting infections can be self-managed by patients, potentially reducing consultations and unnecessary antibiotic use. This qualitative study informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) aimed to explore healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) and patients’ needs on provision of self-care and safety-netting advice for common infections. Twenty-seven patients and seven HCPs participated in semi-structured focus groups (FGs) and interviews. An information leaflet was iteratively developed and reviewed by participants in interviews and FGs, and an additional 5 HCPs, and 25 patients (identifying from minority ethnic groups) via online questionnaires. Qualitative data were analysed thematically, double-coded, and mapped to the TDF. Participants required information on symptom duration, safety netting, self-care, and antibiotics. Patients felt confident to self-care and were averse to consulting with HCPs unnecessarily but struggled to assess symptom severity. Patients reported seeking help for children or elderly dependents earlier. HCPs’ concerns included patients’ attitudes and a lack of available monitoring of advice given to patients. Participants believed community pharmacy should be the first place that patients seek advice on common infections. The patient information leaflet on common infections should be used in primary care and community pharmacy to support patients to self-manage symptoms and determine when further help is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary healthcare; general practice; community pharmacy; antibiotics; qualitative study; patient attitudes; self-care; questionnaire; behavioural science primary healthcare; general practice; community pharmacy; antibiotics; qualitative study; patient attitudes; self-care; questionnaire; behavioural science
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayes, C.V.; Mahon, B.; Sides, E.; Allison, R.; Lecky, D.M.; McNulty, C.A.M. Empowering Patients to Self-Manage Common Infections: Qualitative Study Informing the Development of an Evidence-Based Patient Information Leaflet. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1113. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091113

AMA Style

Hayes CV, Mahon B, Sides E, Allison R, Lecky DM, McNulty CAM. Empowering Patients to Self-Manage Common Infections: Qualitative Study Informing the Development of an Evidence-Based Patient Information Leaflet. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(9):1113. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091113

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayes, Catherine V., Bláthnaid Mahon, Eirwen Sides, Rosie Allison, Donna M. Lecky, and Cliodna A.M. McNulty 2021. "Empowering Patients to Self-Manage Common Infections: Qualitative Study Informing the Development of an Evidence-Based Patient Information Leaflet" Antibiotics 10, no. 9: 1113. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091113

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