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Article

Practices and Challenges of Veterinary Paraprofessionals in Regards to Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

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Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65454, Dar es Salaam 65001, Tanzania
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SACIDS Foundation for One Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro 3019, Tanzania
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National Institute for Medical Research, Tabora Research Centre, P.O. Box 482, 026 Boma Road, Tabora 45026, Tanzania
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London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK
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Department of Medical Microbiology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza 33109, Tanzania
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam 11103, Tanzania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gernot Zarfel
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060733
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Usage of Antibiotic in Agriculture and Animal Farming)
We conducted a qualitative study to explore the practices and challenges of veterinary paraprofessionals (paravets) on antimicrobial use and resistance in domestic animals. Methods: This was a qualitative study, which involved semi-structured interviews with paravets from the Ilala, Ubungo, Kigamboni, Kinondoni, and Temeke districts in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results: A total of 40 paravets participated in this study. The majority (72.5%) admitted to having not undergone any formal training on antimicrobial use and/or resistance. Paravets face several challenges, including poor working conditions and having no access to laboratory services to advise on antimicrobial choice and selection. They also face challenges from livestock farmers such as the inability to afford the recommended medicines, the self-prescription of antimicrobials, and poor record keeping. The presence of sub-standard medicine and the lack of guidelines on the appropriate disposal of medicines were also identified as affecting their services. Conclusion: Paravets should be trained in the judicious use of antimicrobials, and the same training should be used to refresh their knowledge on the diagnosis and prevention of infections. The Veterinary Council of Tanzania and other regulatory agencies should assist in addressing the challenges facing paravets that are related to animal health services and the quality of medicines. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial use; antimicrobial resistance; veterinary paraprofessionals; perception; Tanzania antimicrobial use; antimicrobial resistance; veterinary paraprofessionals; perception; Tanzania
MDPI and ACS Style

Frumence, G.; Mboera, L.E.G.; Sindato, C.; Durrance-Bagale, A.; Jung, A.-S.; Mshana, S.E.; Clark, T.G.; Legido-Quigley, H.; Matee, M.I. Practices and Challenges of Veterinary Paraprofessionals in Regards to Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 733. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060733

AMA Style

Frumence G, Mboera LEG, Sindato C, Durrance-Bagale A, Jung A-S, Mshana SE, Clark TG, Legido-Quigley H, Matee MI. Practices and Challenges of Veterinary Paraprofessionals in Regards to Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(6):733. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060733

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frumence, Gasto, Leonard E.G. Mboera, Calvin Sindato, Anna Durrance-Bagale, Anne-Sophie Jung, Stephen E. Mshana, Taane G. Clark, Helena Legido-Quigley, and Mecky I. Matee 2021. "Practices and Challenges of Veterinary Paraprofessionals in Regards to Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania" Antibiotics 10, no. 6: 733. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060733

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