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Article

Evaluation of the MeroRisk Calculator, A User-Friendly Tool to Predict the Risk of Meropenem Target Non-Attainment in Critically Ill Patients

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin, Kelchstr. 31, 12169 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
3
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
4
Graduate Research Training Program PharMetrX, Freie Universität Berlin, 12169 Berlin, Germany
5
Graduate Research Training Program PharMetrX, Universität Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
6
Institute of Mathematics, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
7
Laboratory Dr. Brunner, Luisenstr. 7e, 78464 Konstanz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share senior authorship.
Academic Editors: Alexander Brinkmann, Stefan Hagel and Otto Roman Frey
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040468
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 16 April 2021 / Published: 20 April 2021
Background: The MeroRisk-calculator, an easy-to-use tool to determine the risk of meropenem target non-attainment after standard dosing (1000 mg; q8h), uses a patient’s creatinine clearance and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the pathogen. In clinical practice, however, the MIC is rarely available. The objectives were to evaluate the MeroRisk-calculator and to extend risk assessment by including general pathogen sensitivity data. Methods: Using a clinical routine dataset (155 patients, 891 samples), a direct data-based evaluation was not feasible. Thus, in step 1, the performance of a pharmacokinetic model was determined for predicting the measured concentrations. In step 2, the PK model was used for a model-based evaluation of the MeroRisk-calculator: risk of target non-attainment was calculated using the PK model and agreement with the MeroRisk-calculator was determined by a visual and statistical (Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)) analysis for MIC values 0.125–16 mg/L. The MeroRisk-calculator was extended to include risk assessment based on EUCAST-MIC distributions and cumulative-fraction-of-response analysis. Results: Step 1 showed a negligible bias of the PK model to underpredict concentrations (−0.84 mg/L). Step 2 revealed a high level of agreement between risk of target non-attainment predictions for creatinine clearances >50 mL/min (CCC = 0.990), but considerable deviations for patients <50 mL/min. For 27% of EUCAST-listed pathogens the median cumulative-fraction-of-response for the observed patients receiving standard dosing was < 90%. Conclusions: The MeroRisk-calculator was successfully evaluated: For patients with maintained renal function it allows a reliable and user-friendly risk assessment. The integration of pathogen-based risk assessment substantially increases the applicability of the tool. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk assessment; excel tool; individualized dosing; model-based evaluation risk assessment; excel tool; individualized dosing; model-based evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liebchen, U.; Klose, M.; Paal, M.; Vogeser, M.; Zoller, M.; Schroeder, I.; Schmitt, L.; Huisinga, W.; Michelet, R.; Zander, J.; Scharf, C.; Weinelt, F.A.; Kloft, C. Evaluation of the MeroRisk Calculator, A User-Friendly Tool to Predict the Risk of Meropenem Target Non-Attainment in Critically Ill Patients. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040468

AMA Style

Liebchen U, Klose M, Paal M, Vogeser M, Zoller M, Schroeder I, Schmitt L, Huisinga W, Michelet R, Zander J, Scharf C, Weinelt FA, Kloft C. Evaluation of the MeroRisk Calculator, A User-Friendly Tool to Predict the Risk of Meropenem Target Non-Attainment in Critically Ill Patients. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(4):468. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liebchen, Uwe; Klose, Marian; Paal, Michael; Vogeser, Michael; Zoller, Michael; Schroeder, Ines; Schmitt, Lisa; Huisinga, Wilhelm; Michelet, Robin; Zander, Johannes; Scharf, Christina; Weinelt, Ferdinand A.; Kloft, Charlotte. 2021. "Evaluation of the MeroRisk Calculator, A User-Friendly Tool to Predict the Risk of Meropenem Target Non-Attainment in Critically Ill Patients" Antibiotics 10, no. 4: 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040468

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