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Article

Daily Administered Dual-Light Photodynamic Therapy Provides a Sustained Antibacterial Effect on Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Koite Health Oy, 02150 Espoo, Finland
3
Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, Hampshire, UK
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Heart and Lung Center, Meilahti Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
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Department of Congenital Heart Surgery and Organ Transplantation, New Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equality to this work.
Academic Editors: Alan J. Hibbitts and Sofia A. Papadimitriou
Antibiotics 2021, 10(10), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101240
Received: 14 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
New means to reduce excessive antibiotic use are urgently needed. This study tested dual-light aPDT against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm with different relative ratios of light energy with indocyanine green. We applied single-light aPDT (810 nm aPDT, 405 aBL) or dual-light aPDT (simultaneous 810 nm aPDT and 405 nm aBL), in both cases, together with the ICG photosensitizer with constant energy of 100 or 200 J/cm2. Single-dose light exposures were given after one-day, three-day, or six-day biofilm incubations. A repeated daily dose of identical light energy was applied during biofilm incubations for the three- and six-day biofilms. Using 100 J/cm2 light energy against the one-day biofilm, the dual-light aPDT consisting of more than half of aBL was the most effective. On a three-day maturated biofilm, single-dose exposure to aPDT or dual-light aPDT was more effective than aBL alone. With total light energy of 200 J/cm2, all dual-light treatments were effective. Dual-light aPDT improves the bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm compared to aPDT or aBL and provides a sustained effect. An increase in the relative ratio of aBL strengthens the antibacterial effect, mainly when the treatment is repeatedly applied. Thus, the light components’ energy ratio is essential with dual-light. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm; Staphylococcus aureus; antibacterial photodynamic therapy biofilm; Staphylococcus aureus; antibacterial photodynamic therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikinmaa, S.; Podonyi, A.; Raivio, P.; Meurman, J.; Sorsa, T.; Rantala, J.; Kankuri, E.; Tauriainen, T.; Pätilä, T. Daily Administered Dual-Light Photodynamic Therapy Provides a Sustained Antibacterial Effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1240. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101240

AMA Style

Nikinmaa S, Podonyi A, Raivio P, Meurman J, Sorsa T, Rantala J, Kankuri E, Tauriainen T, Pätilä T. Daily Administered Dual-Light Photodynamic Therapy Provides a Sustained Antibacterial Effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(10):1240. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101240

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nikinmaa, Sakari, Anna Podonyi, Peter Raivio, Jukka Meurman, Timo Sorsa, Juha Rantala, Esko Kankuri, Tuomas Tauriainen, and Tommi Pätilä. 2021. "Daily Administered Dual-Light Photodynamic Therapy Provides a Sustained Antibacterial Effect on Staphylococcus aureus" Antibiotics 10, no. 10: 1240. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10101240

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