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Breath Analysis Using eNose and Ion Mobility Technology to Diagnose Inflammatory Bowel Disease—A Pilot Study

1
School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
3
Applied Biological Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
4
Health and Life Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
5
Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9020055
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Early Disease Diagnosis)
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Abstract

Early diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), remains a clinical challenge with current tests being invasive and costly. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and biomarkers in stool (faecal calprotectin (FCP)) show increasing potential as non-invasive diagnostic tools. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of breath analysis and determine if FCP can be used as an additional non-invasive parameter to supplement breath results, for the diagnosis of IBD. Thirty-nine subjects were recruited (14 CD, 16 UC, 9 controls). Breath samples were analysed using an in-house built electronic nose (Wolf eNose) and commercial gas chromatograph–ion mobility spectrometer (G.A.S. BreathSpec GC-IMS). Both technologies could consistently separate IBD and controls [AUC ± 95%, sensitivity, specificity], eNose: [0.81, 0.67, 0.89]; GC-IMS: [0.93, 0.87, 0.89]. Furthermore, we could separate CD from UC, eNose: [0.88, 0.71, 0.88]; GC-IMS: [0.71, 0.86, 0.62]. Including FCP did not improve distinction between CD vs. UC; eNose: [0.74, 1.00, 0.56], but rather, improved separation of CD vs. controls and UC vs. controls; eNose: [0.77, 0.55, 1.00] and [0.72, 0.89, 0.67] without FCP, [0.81, 0.73, 0.78] and [0.90, 1.00, 0.78] with FCP, respectively. These results confirm the utility of breath analysis to distinguish between IBD-related diagnostic groups. FCP does not add significant diagnostic value to breath analysis within this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); breath analysis; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); faecal calprotectin (FCP); electronic nose (eNose); GC-IMS inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); breath analysis; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); faecal calprotectin (FCP); electronic nose (eNose); GC-IMS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tiele, A.; Wicaksono, A.; Kansara, J.; Arasaradnam, R.P.; Covington, J.A. Breath Analysis Using eNose and Ion Mobility Technology to Diagnose Inflammatory Bowel Disease—A Pilot Study. Biosensors 2019, 9, 55.

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