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Open AccessArticle

A Liposomal Platform for Sensing of Extracellular Analytes Near Cells

1
ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, Institute of Photonics and Advanced Sensing, Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
2
Discipline of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
3
Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040117
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
Cell-permeable fluorescent chemosensors (calcein, monochlorobimane, and a recently reported spiropyran-based sensor SP2) have been incorporated into yeast total lipid extract-based liposomes to suppress inherent cell permeability to allow the detection of extracellular Ca2+, GSH, and Zn2+, respectively. The repurposed sensors have enhanced aqueous solubility and the ability to quantitatively measure biologically relevant concentrations of Ca2+ (0.25 mM–1 mM), Zn2+ (6.25 µM–50 µM), and GSH (0.25 mM–1 mM) by fluorescence in aqueous media. In addition, the liposomal sensors are nontoxic to HEK293 cells and have the ability to detect exogenously added Zn2+ (1 mM), Ca2+ (1 mM), or GSH (1 mM) near cells without internalisation. This new sensing platform provides a means to repurpose a range of intracellular fluorescent sensors to specifically detect extracellular analytes, while also improving biocompatibility for overall enhanced use in a wide range of biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: liposome; biosensing; extracellular sensing; fluorescence; small-molecule sensors liposome; biosensing; extracellular sensing; fluorescence; small-molecule sensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Heng, S.; Pei, J.; Morey, J.R.; McDevitt, C.A.; Abell, A.D. A Liposomal Platform for Sensing of Extracellular Analytes Near Cells. Biosensors 2018, 8, 117.

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