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Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection

Nano Electrochemistry Laboratory, College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Academic Editor: Glen C Rains
Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 537-561; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030537
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Agroecosystems)
Food losses due to crop infections from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi are persistent issues in agriculture for centuries across the globe. In order to minimize the disease induced damage in crops during growth, harvest and postharvest processing, as well as to maximize productivity and ensure agricultural sustainability, advanced disease detection and prevention in crops are imperative. This paper reviews the direct and indirect disease identification methods currently used in agriculture. Laboratory-based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence (IF), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry (FCM) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are some of the direct detection methods. Indirect methods include thermography, fluorescence imaging and hyperspectral techniques. Finally, the review also provides a comprehensive overview of biosensors based on highly selective bio-recognition elements such as enzyme, antibody, DNA/RNA and bacteriophage as a new tool for the early identification of crop diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: food loss; plant pathogen; volatile organic compounds; sensor; enzyme; antibody; DNA/RNA; bacteriophage food loss; plant pathogen; volatile organic compounds; sensor; enzyme; antibody; DNA/RNA; bacteriophage
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Fang, Y.; Ramasamy, R.P. Current and Prospective Methods for Plant Disease Detection. Biosensors 2015, 5, 537-561.

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