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Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic Beads and the Sensor Surface
Department of Physics, Thin Films & Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstraße 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2013; in revised form: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Abstract: Lab-on-a-chip immuno assays utilizing superparamagnetic beads as labels suffer from the fact that the majority of beads pass the sensing area without contacting the sensor surface. Different solutions, employing magnetic forces, ultrasonic standing waves, or hydrodynamic effects have been found over the past decades. The first category uses magnetic forces, created by on-chip conducting lines to attract beads towards the sensor surface. Modifications of the magnetic landscape allow for additional transport and separation of different bead species. The hydrodynamic approach uses changes in the channel geometry to enhance the capture volume. In acoustofluidics, ultrasonic standing waves force µm-sized particles onto a surface through radiation forces. As these approaches have their disadvantages, a new sensor concept that circumvents these problems is suggested. This concept is based on the granular giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect that can be found in gels containing magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed design could be realized in the shape of paper-based test strips printed with gel-based GMR sensors.
Keywords: lab-on-a-chip; immuno assay; superparamagnetic beads; granular GMR; microfluidics; biosensors; magnetoresistive sensors; µTAS
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Eickenberg, B.; Meyer, J.; Helmich, L.; Kappe, D.; Auge, A.; Weddemann, A.; Wittbracht, F.; Hütten, A. Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic Beads and the Sensor Surface. Biosensors 2013, 3, 327-340.
Eickenberg B, Meyer J, Helmich L, Kappe D, Auge A, Weddemann A, Wittbracht F, Hütten A. Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic Beads and the Sensor Surface. Biosensors. 2013; 3(3):327-340.
Eickenberg, Bernhard; Meyer, Judith; Helmich, Lars; Kappe, Daniel; Auge, Alexander; Weddemann, Alexander; Wittbracht, Frank; Hütten, Andreas. 2013. "Lab-on-a-Chip Magneto-Immunoassays: How to Ensure Contact between Superparamagnetic Beads and the Sensor Surface." Biosensors 3, no. 3: 327-340.