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Article

Water Sampling Module for Collecting and Concentrating Legionella pneumophila from Low-to-Medium Contaminated Environment

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Laboratory for Quantum Semiconductors and Photon-Based BioNanotechnology, Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT), CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 boul. de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 boul. de l’Université, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
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Department of Microbiology and Infectiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, 3001, 12th Avenue North, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
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Produits Chimiques Magnus Limitée, 1271, rue Ampère, Boucherville, QC J4B 5Z5, Canada
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2021, 11(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020034
Received: 5 November 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Biosensors—Fundamentals, Fabrication, and Applications)
The detection of water contamination with Legionella pneumophila is of critical importance to manufacturers of water processing equipment and public health entities dealing with water networks and distribution systems. Detection methods based on polymerase chain reaction or biosensor technologies require preconcentration steps to achieve attractive sensitivity levels. Preconcentration must also be included in protocols of automated collection of water samples by systems designed for quasi-continuous monitoring of remotely located water reservoirs for the presence of L. pneumophila. We designed and characterized a water sampling module for filtration and backwashing intended for analysis of low-to-medium contaminated water, typically with L. pneumophila bacteria not exceeding 50 colony-forming units per milliliter. The concentration factors of 10× and 21× were achieved with 0.22 and 0.45 µm filters, respectively, for samples of bacteria prepared in clean saline solutions. However, a 5× concentration factor was achieved with 0.45 µm filters for a heavily contaminated or turbid water typical of some industrial water samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionella pneumophila; Legionnaires’ disease; water samples; cooling towers; filtration system; concentration factor; recovery rate; bacteria Legionella pneumophila; Legionnaires’ disease; water samples; cooling towers; filtration system; concentration factor; recovery rate; bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moumanis, K.; Sirbu, L.; Hassen, W.M.; Frost, E.; Carvalho, L.R.d.; Hiernaux, P.; Dubowski, J.J. Water Sampling Module for Collecting and Concentrating Legionella pneumophila from Low-to-Medium Contaminated Environment. Biosensors 2021, 11, 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020034

AMA Style

Moumanis K, Sirbu L, Hassen WM, Frost E, Carvalho LRd, Hiernaux P, Dubowski JJ. Water Sampling Module for Collecting and Concentrating Legionella pneumophila from Low-to-Medium Contaminated Environment. Biosensors. 2021; 11(2):34. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moumanis, Khalid, Lilian Sirbu, Walid Mohamed Hassen, Eric Frost, Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho, Pierre Hiernaux, and Jan Jerzy Dubowski. 2021. "Water Sampling Module for Collecting and Concentrating Legionella pneumophila from Low-to-Medium Contaminated Environment" Biosensors 11, no. 2: 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11020034

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