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Effect of TiO2-ZnO-MgO Mixed Oxide on Microbial Growth and Toxicity against Artemia salina

1
Laboratorio Integral de Investigación en Alimentos, Tecnológico Nacional de México/Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic, Av. Tecnológico 255 Fracc, Lagos del Country, Tepic 63175, Nayarit, Mexico
2
División de Ciencias Agropecuarias e Ingenierías, Centro Universitario de los Altos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Rafael Casillas Aceves 1200, Tepatitlán de Morelos 47600, Jalisco, Mexico
3
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Avenida de las Ciencias S/N, Juriquilla, Santiago de Querétaro 76230, Querétaro, Mexico
4
Departamento de Ingeniería en Control y Automatización, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica-Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, UPALM, Av. Politécnico S/N, Col. Zacatenco, Alcaldía Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de México 07738, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070992
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based on IV-Group Semiconductors)
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Abstract

Mixed oxide nanoparticles (MONs, TiO2–ZnO–MgO) obtained by the sol-gel method were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, (TEM, HRTEM, and SAED) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTGA–DTA). Furthermore, the effect of MONs on microbial growth (growth profiling curve, lethal and sublethal effect) of Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as the toxicity against Artemia salina by the lethal concentration test (LC50) were evaluated. MONs exhibited a near-spherical in shape, polycrystalline structure and mean sizes from 17 to 23 nm. The thermal analysis revealed that the anatase phase of MONs is completed around 480–500 °C. The normal growth of all bacteria tested is affected by the MONs presence compared with the control group. MONs also exhibited a reduction on the plate count from 0.58 to 2.10 log CFU/mL with a sublethal cell injury from 17 to 98%. No significant toxicity within 24 h was observed on A. salina. A bacteriostatic effect of MONs on bacteria was evidenced, which was strongly influenced by the type of bacteria, as well as no toxic effects (LC50 >1000 mg/L; TiO2–ZnO (5%)–MgO (5%)) on A. salina were detected. This study demonstrates the potential of MONs for industrial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: mixed oxides; nanomaterials; antimicrobial activity; toxicity; Artemia salina mixed oxides; nanomaterials; antimicrobial activity; toxicity; Artemia salina
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anaya-Esparza, L.M.; González-Silva, N.; Yahia, E.M.; González-Vargas, O.A.; Montalvo-González, E.; Pérez-Larios, A. Effect of TiO2-ZnO-MgO Mixed Oxide on Microbial Growth and Toxicity against Artemia salina. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 992.

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