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NanoTiO2 Sunscreen Does Not Prevent Systemic Oxidative Stress Caused by UV Radiation and a Minor Amount of NanoTiO2 is Absorbed in Humans

1
Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Na Bojišti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic
2
J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Dolejskova 3, 182 23 Prague 8, Czech Republic
3
Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ, UK
4
Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Vinicna 5, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
5
Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamycka 129, 165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060888
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract

The present pilot study tested the efficiency of nanoTiO2 sunscreen to prevent the oxidative stress/inflammation caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation using biomarkers in subjects’ blood, urine, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC). In addition, the skin absorption of nanoTiO2 was studied. Six identical subjects participated in three tests: (A) nanoTiO2 sunscreen, (B) UV radiation, and (C) sunscreen + UV. The first samples were collected before the test and the second after sunscreen application and/or UV exposure. On day 4, the third samples were collected, and the sunscreen was washed off, and the fourth samples were collected on day 11. The following biomarkers were measured: malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenal, aldehydes C6-C12, 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α, o-tyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, 3-nitrotyrosine, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, 5-hydroxymethyl uracil, and leukotrienes, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. Titania was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and TiO2 nanoparticles by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Sunscreen alone did not elevate the markers, but UV increased the biomarkers in the plasma, urine, and EBC. The sunscreen prevented skin redness, however it did not inhibit the elevation of oxidative stress/inflammatory markers. Titania and nanoTiO2 particles were found in the plasma and urine (but not in the EBC) in all sunscreen users, suggesting their skin absorption. View Full-Text
Keywords: sunscreen; UV irradiation; nanoparticles absorption; nanoTiO2; oxidative stress; inflammation; nanotoxicology; plasma; urine; exhaled breath condensate (EBC); transmission electron microscopy (TEM); scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sunscreen; UV irradiation; nanoparticles absorption; nanoTiO2; oxidative stress; inflammation; nanotoxicology; plasma; urine; exhaled breath condensate (EBC); transmission electron microscopy (TEM); scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pelclova, D.; Navratil, T.; Kacerova, T.; Zamostna, B.; Fenclova, Z.; Vlckova, S.; Kacer, P. NanoTiO2 Sunscreen Does Not Prevent Systemic Oxidative Stress Caused by UV Radiation and a Minor Amount of NanoTiO2 is Absorbed in Humans. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 888.

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